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Pennfylvania Magazine : 

O R, 


For FEBRUARY 1776. 


Meteorological Diary 54 Narrative of the Shipwreck of Emanoel 

Hygrometer Table' ib. Crefpel 73 

The Dream of Irus 57 Dumb Speech, or the Art of Converting 

Life pf Guftavus Adolphus king of S»e- by the Fingers only, a* well in the 

den 63 Dark as in the Light. 77 

Practical Chemiftry 67 The Hiftory of Uriel : Acofta, as related 

Fafts on Fjoft 68 by hinilclf ^o 

Arguments againft playing at Cards on Scleft Paflages from New Publications 83 

the Lord's day 69 Poetry. — A new Sbng 89 

Method of Manufacturing Gun-poudjr The three Warnings; a tale 90 

•;i Monthly Intelligence oi 

With a Plate, reprefenting the I 'arious Figures ufed in Dumb Speech. 

Printed by R. Aitken the Publlflvjr, opppfit$ the London Ccffee- 
Houfe, Front-Street t776- 


At Philadelphia. 

From January 20. to February 20. 1776* 
Day Hour. Ther. Wind. Weather. 


Pal 9 A.M. 23 N W Fair. 

23 9 

9 A.M. 29 NW Snowing. 

7 9 



, Wind, 

























A. M. 





































































24 9 A. M. 3° NW Cloudy. 

*5 9 A. M. 32 NW Overcaft. 

36 9 A.M. 30 NE Overcaft, fnow the preceding day ; 

37 9 A. M. 17 NW Fair, Delaware froze over. 
»8 9 A. M. 20 NW Overcaft. 
39 9 A.M. 20 NW Overcaft. 

30 9 A. M. 22 NW 1 Overcaft. 

31 9 A. M. 33 Foggy, fnow and rain the preceding day. 
I 9 A.M. 41 NW Foggy, rain the preceding day. 
3 9 A. M. 24 NW Cloudy, fnow and rain the preceding day. 

3 9 A. M. 15 NW Snowing. 

4 9 A. M. 21 NW Fair. 

5 9 A. M. 22 NW Cloudy. 

6 9 A.M. 23 NW Fair and, windy. 


8 '. A. M. 30 SW Cloudy. 

9 9 A. M. 46 SW Foggy, rain ip the night. 
To 9 A. M. 52 SW Cloudy, rain the preceding day and night* 

11 9 A. M. 3* W Wind and Cloudy, froft in the night. 

12 9 A.M. 26 NW Fair. 

13 9 A.M. 28 W Cloudy. 

14 9 A. M. 35 W Haz y- 

15 9 A.M. 43 Foggy. 

16 9 A. M. 41 NW Cloudy, raid, lightning, and thunder the preceding 

17 9 A. M. 40 NE Cloudy. (evening. 

18 9 A. M. 25 NE Fair. 

19 9 A.M. 26 NE Fair. 


From January 20. to February 20. 1776. 

Day. Hour. Hyg. Day. Hour. Hyg> 

Jan. 20 9 A. M. 86 29 9 A. M. 40 

3 P- M- ?o 3 P- M. 35 

21 No obfervation. 30 9 A. M 30 

22 9 A M. 100 3 P. M. 43 
3 P. M. 104 31 9 A. M. 80 

23 9 A. M. 109 3 P. M. 75 
3 P. M. 105 Feb. 1 9 A. M. 70 

24 9 A. M. 50 3 P. M. 95 
3 P. M. 65 No obfervation from the fecond 

25 9 A. M. 80 of February to the fixteenth. 
3 P. M 85 17 9 A. M. 10 

26 9 A. M. 90 3 P. M.. 85 
3 P. M. 95 18 . No obfervation. 

27 9 A. M. 95 19 9 A. M. 90 
3 P. M. 100 3 P. M. 95 

28 No obfervation. 

f 57 ) 

For the Pennsylvania Maga- 

The Dream «/IRUS. 

AS Irus, who had been la- 
bouring in the field from 
the dawn of the day, was return- 
ing in the evening, fatigued and 
difpirited, fainting under all the 
wretchednefs of poverty, and fe- 
cretly repining at his condition, 
he broke out into this exclama- 
tion : 

" O Happinefs ! thou objedt 
of univerfal defire, thou unknown" 
deity, whom all men ignorantly 
yrorfhip ; where fhall I find thee, 
.ajad in what temple art thou ma- 
nifeft to the children of the earth? 
Doll thou fhine in the palace ? 
Doft thou hide thyfelf in the cot- 
tage, or doft thou aflbciate wjth 
Jaediocrity ?" 

Irus concluding his exclama- 
tion with a figh, fat down at 
rthe foot of an oak, where he foon 
fell afleep, and the genius of in- 
ftru&ion impreffed the following 
images upon his mind in a dream. 

He beheld a mighty prince 
making a triumphal entry into a 
magnificent city, furrounded by 
his nobles, and followed by an 
innumerable multitude, who filled 
the air with acclamations of praife. 
Irus remarked the grace and ma- 
jelly with which he received this 
homage, and touched at once with 
admiration and delight, he faid 
to himfelf, " Surely this is a hap- 
py man. If one tender and faith- 
ful friend, can footh the infelici- 
ties., and heighten the enjoyments 
of life, how happy muft he be, 
who hath thus won the hearts of 
a whole nation !" He then mixed 
Vol. II. 

among the crowd that clofed the 
proceflion, and foon after, found 
himfelf at the place, where the 
king fat at table in the midfl of 
his court. He was fo gracious, and 
fo ealy of accefs, that every body 
was admitted without diftinftion. 
The pomp and elegance of the 
feaft was univerfally admired, and 
the eyes of the prince fparkled 
with benevolence and joy, when 
he fuddenly cried out, like one in 
acute pain, and gave orders to be 
immediately removed into his 
chamber. Irus was greatly furprifed, 
but he foon learnt that it was a 
fudden and violent excefs of the 

fjout that had interrupted the pub- 
ic joy, and fent his majefty from 
table to bed. " Alas, faid Irus, 
furely this good prince deferves 
a happinefs that is unmixed." 

The fceneimmediattly changed, 
and Irus beheld an Afiatic fo- 
vereign who had not the gout ; 
he was in the bloom of life, and 
extremely handfome, and fur- 
rounded with whatever could ad- 
minifter delight. He was fitting 
befide his favourite lady, who was 
lovely beyond defcription • ' V but 
there was a gloom in his .-coun- 
tenance, which neither love nor 
mufic could difpel f there was a 
namejefs kind of wildiiefs in his 
•eye, '' a mixture of fefocity and 
terror, and his whole air and de- 
portment, dilcovered that his mind 
was not at reft. ' While Irus was, 
contemplating this objcdl with 
wonder and regret, he was alarm- 
ed with a confufed found, which 
grew louder and louder every mo- 
ment ; all of a fudden the door of 
the apartment was burft open, 
and a man rufhed in, followed by 
H fever* 


feveral others, armed with poig- 
nards and fcymitars, who, in a 
moment, laid the fultan dead on 
the ground. The ■ whole palace 
was inftantly filled with confufion 
and horror ; they tore the mangled 
carcafs of the fultan limb from 
limb, and his ftill quivering re- 
mains were infulted, even by the 
favourite that had been fitting by 
his fide, and participating of his 
pleafures. " Alas, faid Irus, this 
man muft certainly hare been a 
monfter of wickednefs. Happi- 
nefs can never be the portion of 
guilt !" 

All thefe objefts then vanifhed, 
and Irus faw nothing but a little 
old woman, (hnvelled and ema- 
ciated, who pulled him haftily by 
the fleeve, and cried, with a tone 
of importance and felf fatisfadlion, 
hook at me. " I do look at you 
faid Irus." " Then faid the old 
woman, you fee happinefs itfelf. 
I am the moft fortunate of all wo- 
men. When I was about fifteen, 
my father told me one day, that 
he intended to marry me. — As 
you pleafe, Sir, faid I : — The huf- 
band I intend for you, is very 
rich, faid he : — fo much the bet- 
ter, faid I : — but he is not young, 
faid my father: — what is that to 
me, faid I ? — and he has fome- 
thing of a hump, faid he ; — and 
what have I to do with that, faid 
I ? he may ^be a very good man 
for all his hump. — I appeared al- 
together indifferent about the mat- 
ter, and wifhed for nothing but 
the pleafure of managing my good 
man as I thought fit:- In fhort, 
we were married, and I was fo 
capricious ,!Fo imperious, fohumour- 
fome, and fo obftinate, that I 
rery foon broke his heart. 

" He left me miftrefs of a very 
large fortune, with a booby of a 


The Dream of Irus. 

fon, whom I governed with 
moft defpotic tyranny, in :rr, - 
mon with my old cook, my 
key and my parrot ; my mon i r 
and my parrot I had indeed Jo- J 
affection for, but I loved notli £ 
elfe in the world." — " I aim r e 
you infinitely, faid Irus, a perion 
with fuch a head as yours, ought 
to govern even fate itfelf: I do 
however, envy your happinefs, 
for it feems rather to be that of a 
tyger or wolf, than of a human 

The old woman difappeared, 
and Irus difcovered a more pleaf- 
ing object. He faw a village fitua- 
ted on the declivity of a hill crown- 
ed with wood at the top, and 
watered by a chryftal ftream be- 
low, which, after many windings 
through the meadow, fell into the 
fea between two mountains which 
formed a very regular and beauti- 
ful piece of perfpedtive. Out 
this village came a young couple, 
crowned with flowers, and drefied 
with the neat fimplicity peculiar 
to their fituation : They feemed 
to be animated by a native «and 
unaffected chearfulnefs, and were 
accompanied by almoft all the in- 
habitants of the place, who feelbed 
to congratulate them on the mar- 
riage they were about to celebrate. 
Irus, who contemplated this rural 
fcene with great delight, faw a 
table fpread under the (hade of 
fome trees, at which the company 
were foon placed, without ceremo- 
ny ; they eat heartily, and drank 
often to the health of the bride and 
bridegroom : The young folks 
then danced with this chearful af- 
fembly, and having taken their 
evening's repaft. at the fame table, 
they retired to their cottage. It 

was a little thatched hovel' which 
contained nothing but a wretehed 


The Dream 

bed and a few pieces of crazy fur- 
niture. " I did not expect, fafd 
Irus to one of the company who 
ftood near him, that after fo much 
appearance of pleafure and good 
chear, the young couple would 
retire to a place fo deftitute of all 
that is decent and convenient, fo 
little adapted to domeftic enjoy- 
ment, and, indeed, fo unfit even 
for the repofe of labour." — Thefe 
young people, replied the man, 
malt do <is we do. They mud go 
out to their daily labour at break 
of day, and continue it till fun fet: 
They will get children, who will 
complicate their labour with em- 
barraffment and diltrefs, and will, 
with inceffant fatigue, folicitude, 
and anxiety, bring them up to be 
as miferable as themfelves. Irus 
was fenfibly touched at what he 
heard ; " Alas, faid he, I flatter- 
ed myfelf that I fhould find Hap- 
pinefs here, but I am now con- 
vinced I was miftaken." 

The next moment he found 
himfelf near a houfe of a very 
good appearance, and faw an old 
man,-, whofe figure touched him 
with involuntary reverence : He 
had?41ong white beard, which co- 
vered his hreaft, and reached al- 
mod as low as his girdle : He had 
a ruddy countenance, a piercing 
eye, and his afpect exprefTed the 
utmoft fatisfaftion and tranquili- 
ty. Irus faluted him with the 
mod profound refpecl, and afked, 
with an air of timid modefty, who 
he was ? " I am, faid the old man, 
the mafter of this houfe ; I im- 
prove my own grounds, I live in 
great harmony with my wife and 
children ; I pra&ife hofpitality, 
both as a pleafure and a duty ; 
and, if ^du are willing, you may 
be \jritnefs to the truth of what I 
tell you." — -In fuch a fituation, 

of Irus. 59 

faid Irus, and with fuch fentr 
ments, you mult certainly be wel* 
fatisfied with your condition. — 
" I do not complain, faid the old 
man : I have a competency, and I 
hope I fhall be able to fettle my 
fon and my two daughters in the 
world to advantage. I mould, 
however, have been glad to do 
more for them than will come to 
their fhare. My neighbour, who 
is in no refpeft my fuperior, is a- 
bout to marry his daughter to a 
lord. This unexpected good for- 
tune has been fome days upper- 
moil in my mind, and I am deter- 
mined to leave no ftone unturned 
to make my daughter equal to 
his." — " I find, faid Irus, that 
I am come too late, and I am glad 
I was not deceived by coming 
fooner : You are not my man, and 
fo good b'ye to you." 

As he turned from the old man 
he faw a (tout young fellow fall a- 
fleep, at a little diftance, upon the 
ground ; upon going up to him he 
found him ruddy, and in good 
cafe, but his external appearance 
was that of a beggar. 7r«/,awak- 
ed him, and the itranger looking 
up, and fcratching his head, afked 
what he wanted. ' Can I be of 
' any fervice to you, honed friend, 
' faid Irus ?'■—" To* me ! faid 
the fellow: Thank God. I want 
nothing. I wifh you had gone a- 
bout your bu'fin-jfs without wak- 
ing me." — ' This is pleafant e- 
nough, faid Irus, he that feems 
to have mod reafon to complain, 
is the mod content with his condi- 
tion.'—" Yes, faid the other, I am 
content ; I beg for what I have ; 
I am troubled with no bufinefs, 
and have found out the fecret of 
diverting myfelf at the expence of 
other people. I do nothing, I 
care for nothing, and I have no- 
H 2 thing 


thing-to wifh." 

Jrus's attention by this harangue, 
he was Ally picking his pocket of a 
leathern bag, the itring of which 
hung a little way out of it ; but at 
that moment a man with a fhort 
painted ftaff came foftly behind 
them, and laying hold of the thief, 
whom he detected in the very fact, 
carried him away to prifon. " So, 
Mr. Beggar, laid Irus, are you a 
hap;y man now?" 

Wnile he was thus mufing up- 
on this event, his attention was 
drawn to a very different object, 
and very , different paffions took 
place in his bofom. 

He faw a woman, who, though 
paft the bloom of life, was Hill 
lovely ; but her cheeks was pale, 
her eyes almoft extinguiihed, and 
her breath fhort and interrupted. 
She gralped the hand of a man 
fomewhat older than herfelf, who, 
perceived her to be dying, and by 
an effort of the moll painful forti- 
tude, reftrained his tears, and en- 
deavoured to give the comfort that 
he could not take. " My deareft 
and moil tender friend, faid he, 
tho' the felicity of twenty years, 
which commenced whenourhands 
were united, has vanifhed like a 
dream of the night, and feems to 
have been (carcely of a moment's 
duration, it fhall be renewed in a 
ftate that is beyond the influence 
qi change and time ; a ftate that 
fhall commence when my foul <fhall 
be once moie united to thine, 
when we fhall meet to part no 
more ; a few years perhaps I may 
be fuffered. to continue here for the 
iidce of the charge you leave with 
me, our children, the dear pledges 
of a pure and ardent affeclion, and 
the images of a mother whom I 
fhall itill cherifh, and admire in 
them f but I fhall nol; be long dir 

The Dream of Irus. 

While he fixed vided from you-, and we part orrlp 

you may enjoy before me, 
that happinefs in heaven of which 
your virtue gave you an earnefl 
upon earth.'* 

" You now give me, faid fhe, 
fixing her eyes tenderly upon him, 
a token of your affection that I 
could never receive before, and 
I am more fenfible than ever, that 
I am dear to you ; it is from what 
I feel, that what you have faid de- 
rives its force : Fulfil the kind the 
important tafk for which you are 
detained from me, and let my 
children fometimes learn from you 
how tenderly they were beloved by 
their mother — but I feel my 
ftrength fail me. Let your re- 
membrance at leaft go with me ; 
but leave me now; let me confe- 
crate my laft momenta to God ; 
this requefl is my laft effort ; let it 
make yet this one facrifice to me y 
we muft part, but it will be put 
for a moment ; this is my confola- 

The hufband overwhelmed _at 
once with a fenfe of her tendejnefs 
and piety, quitted her hand which 
was already cold, and which he 
now, for the laft time, preffeo>6rft 
to his bofom, and then to his lips, 
in an agony of fpeechlefs forrow— . 
he retired with a flow and inter- 
rupted pace, and his eyes at laft 
quitted their favorite object, with 
a reluctance which his fortitude 
could fcarce furmount. The mo-> 
ment he was alone, the tears which 
he had ftruggled to fupprefs burft 
out in copious torrents, and in a 
very fhort time he was told that his 
wife was dead ; his anguifh was too 
great for words, he only looked up 
to heaven, and, ftriking his hands- 
together, continued fome minutes 
in that attitude ; then recollecting 
himfelf, he tenderly embraced hu 

The Dream 

children, but without uttering one 
word, or breathing one iigh; the 
funeral apparatus immediately fill- 
ed the chamber of the dead ; the 
(urvivor taking his children by the 
hand, approached the coffin, and 
having firft kneeled down by the 
fide of it, and indulged thofe fen- 
titnents, which words have no 
power to exprefs, they ftooped o- 
ver the body and imprinted a laft 
kifs upon the lifelefs lips ; they 
then retired, and the remains of 
the tendereft wife, and moil affec- 
tionate mother were carried to the 

' O ! mofl amiable couple, faid 
Irus, his eyes overflowing with 
tears, how great, yet how cruel is 
fuch a parting, how much anguifh 
would have been fpared you, if 
you had died together !' 

The next object that prefented 
itfelf to Irus, was a kind of her- 
mitage, the door of which l^pod 
open ; he entered it, and crofTed a 
little chamber, which led him to 
the entrance of a vifta, through 
which, he difcovercd the adjacent 
country ; the profpeel was de- 
lightful ; and while he was admir- 
ing it, he favv a man of a (hort 
ftature, about fifty years old, 
walking among the trees at fome 
diftance, and to all appearance ab- 
forbed in profound meditation. 
After fome time he looked up and 
faw Irus, who immediately apolo- 
gized for the liberty he had taken 
in coming fo far, and expreffed 
fome furprife at the eafy accefs he 
had found. I don't wonder, faid 
the hermit, that you think it 
Grange ; but I neither fay nor do 
any thing that all the world may 
not hear and fee ; and I have al- 
ways (Soniidered the Roman, who 
wifhed that his houfe was built fo 
t> • „ hody might fee all that 

of Irus. 61 

paffed in it, as one of the moft re- 
fpectable characters .in the world. 
Irus was equally pleafed and fur- 
priled at what he heard, and was 
the more ftruft with the hermit, 
the more he confidered hif> appear- 
ance ; there was fomething un- 
commonly penetrating in his look, 
and his countenance expreffed at 
once wifdom and complacency : 
Upon a bank of turf at a little dif- 
tance, lay a manufcript open and 
unfinifhed : I am perfuaded faid 
Irus, to the hermit, that you de- 
vote your leizure to ftudy ; you 
have fcarce faid three words to me 
yet, but they alone are fufficient 
to convince me of your wifdonv 
from which I hope to receive both 
inftru&ion and comfort. This a- 
fylum feems to be the refidence of 
that felicity, which hitherto, like 
the reft of mankind, I have fought 
in vain. Would to God, faid the 
hermit, I could juftify the favour- 
able opinion you have conceived 1 
But, alas ! I poffefs only infirmi- 
ties, misfortunes, and fame ; I am 
at laft weary of a celebrity which 
cofts fo dear ; I have endeavoured 
to teach the truth to mankind* 
and mankind, in return, have* 
loaded me with calumny and re- 
proach. I could fucceed better by 
the practice of ddbeit, but God 
forbid, that I fhould forfeit my 
integrity. It happened the other 
day that I was in a mixed compa- 
ny, where I .was not known, and 
I had the mortification to hear one 
of the perfons prefem) afTert with 
the utmoft confidence, that I Was 
an Epicurean, and that I believed'- 
the tranfmigration of the foul ; 
another of the company ftill more 
daring, and injurious, maintained 
that I was an Atheift ; and yet 
I am every moment giving thanks 
to God, .whom I confider as my 


The Dream of Irus. 

injiru&or in affli&ions, and my 
benefaftor in profperity. In this 
folitude, however, I find tran- 
quillity, if not happinefs ; and, as 
1 hold all fublunary things cheap, 
and make no account at all of o- 
pinion, I do not much repine at 
my lot; I do what good I can, and 
what is a more important and dif- 
ficult talk, I do no harm : I am as 
happy as I can be in this world, 
but if you mould ever be in danger 
of being feduced by the charms of 
celebrity, remember, that he who 
pofleffed them, gave the preference 
to obfeurity. .Let my experience 
apologize for my advice. Irus, 
touched with reverence and grati- 
tude, ftretched out his arms to 
embrace his inftruttor, and was e- 
qually grieved and diiappointed at 
his eluding his graip, and vanifh- 
ing from his fight. 

The next moment, Irus, was 
involved in a thick cloud, and 
when it diffipated, he found him- 
felf in a court of juftice. He lis- 
tened fome time to a celebrated 
pleader, who fpoke with great e- 
loquence againlt feveral enormities 
which are con.ecrated by fafhion, 
and the artifices of thofe who in- 
duce ignorant and querulous peo- 
ple, to fpend immenfe funis in li- 
tigating a trifle. While Irus was 
admiring the talents and the inte- 
grity of the orator, a new fcene 
iuddenly prefented itfelf before 
him ; he thought hjmfelf tranf- 
ported to the houfe of this oracle 
of the law, when he found his wife 
ftill in bed, and perceived with in- 
dignation that (he was not alone. 
Is it then, faid he to himfelf, for 
the gratification of this faithlefs 
woman, in her caprices and extra- 
vagance, that the pleader exhauits 
his lungs, after having grown pale 
by the ftudie* of midnight. Soon 

after, the orator came kome, and 
madam, being then up, ran to 
meet him witn a well atfedted joy, 
and received him with bia;iduh- 
ments, which he thought lmcere. 
How happy is this man, laid I- 
rus ; he is deceived, indeed, but 
he derives from taifhood the fame 
enjoyments as lie couid receive 
from truth, indeed, houefh man , 
you are very mucu obliged to 
your wife for tier cunning. 

The next object that Irus favr 
was a reciufe, emaciated by fall- 
ing and mortiin_uiion ; he appear- - 
ed, however, very well contented 
with ius condition. " Father, 
fays Irus, don't you find,, this 
kind of life very unpleafant ?" 
' Sometimes, my fon, faid the 
reciufe ; but if life is long with re- 
fpecT: to pain, it is fhort with re- 
fpe.dt to pleafure. I fuffer pain, 
without doubt, but I hope that 
thefe tranlient evils will procure 
for me endlefs and changeable fe- 
licity. " I do not blame the fe- 
verity of your difcipline, faid I- 
rus, but are alms and good works 
lefs pleaiing to God than penance 
and mortification, mifery and i- 
dlenefs >." 

The devotee vanished without 
reply, and irus once more faw 
himlelf in the city of the good 
Prince. As he looked up, he be- 
held a winged figure flying about 
in the air, and hovering lirft. over 
one building, and then over an- 
other : It was of an human fhape, 
but appeared neither to be man 
nor woman. Irus was greatly fur- 
prized, and continued to obferve 
its motions with great curiofity ; 
he perceived that it remained a 
little while over the roofs of the 
great, fomewhat longer ovef thofe 
of the poor, and longer fiill over 
the dwellings of mediocrity, 
" Thou 

Lives of eminent Perfons 

" Thou feeft, faid the phantom, 
that I am fixed to no fpot ; take 
care of thy health ; labour for the 
neceflaries of life ; and, above all, 
be juft and temperate in thy defires. 
I (hall then be fometimes thy 
gueft. To me all conditions and 
both fexes are equal ; I am every 
where by turns, and no where 
constantly ; for health, virtue, 
peace of confcienqe, a competence, 
and moderation, are never, or 
are never long, the lot of man ; 
and where thefe are, there only 
I am. As foon aS any one of them 
departs, I depart with it. En- 
deavour to fulfil my councils, and 
and remember that thofe enjoy- 
ments which are moft eafily ac- 
quired, are molt worthy the ac- 
■quifition, and that he rifks the lofs 
of all, who departs from the fim- 
plicity of nature." 

Guftavus Adolphus. 63 

Sotne Account of the Lives of 
eminent Persons. 


Adolphus, King of 

Gustavus Adolphus, was born at 
Stockholm, December 9, 1594. 
His nativity was cart by a famous a- 
ftrologer, who predated him a violent 
death, the ruin of his enemies, and 
the extinction of his illuftrious houfe. 
Tycho Brahe had prognosticated more 
than ten years before Guftavus was 
born, that a new ftar difcovered in 
Caffiopea was nothing but a prince who 
was to be born in the north, and who 
would be of fignal fervice to the Pro- 
tcftants ; fo great, even at that time, 
were the ignorance and fuperftitious 
credulity of the European nations, that 
every prince, as foon as born, had his 
nativity caft, aftrologers were retained 
in all courts, and the predictions which 
they hazarded were believed. It is 
well kno*n, that Lewis XIH. was 
named the Juft, merely becaufe he was 
born under the fign Libra. The re- 
formation and found philofophy have 

happily deftroyed the credit of judicial 
aftrology, and have left one weapon 
lefs in the hands of knaves. 

The education which Guftavus re- 
ceived, was thoroughly calculated, to 
improve his ftrength, his courage and 
his understanding. He was nurfed 
with the utmoft Simplicity and fruga- 
lity ; he was foon accuftomed to an 
active and laborious life, to fatigues, 
and the inclemency of feafons. He 
was never accuftomed to that exceffive 
delicacy, by which a blind and impru- 
dent tendernefs enervates children in 
courts and wealthy families. All the 
amufements of his infancy and of his 
youth were ufeful exerciSes, fuch as 
tended to Strengthen his constitution, 
to render him Supple, dexterous, vi- 
gorous, and to infpire him with cou- 
rage. He alfo difcovered in his ten- 
dereft years, an aflonifhing firmnefs of 
mind and intrepidity. He was not a- 
bove five or fix years old, when, as he 
was one day running among the bullies, 
being told, in order to deter him, that 
there were great fnakes there, he replied 
without the leaft emotion, Give me a 
flick then, that I may kill them. But 
this courage was not without feroci- 
ty : it did not prevent him from being 
amiable by the goodnefs of his 'heart, 
and by a noble generality. A peafant 
brought him a little horfe ; I am going 
faid the young prince, to pay you, for 
probably you have not gi ven it me for no- 
thing, and you -want money ; upon which 
he pulled out a little purfe full of du- 
cats, and poured them all into the pea- 
fant's hands. When he was once taken 
from the women, the king appointed 
the Marfhal of the court, Otho de 
MErnear, a gentleman of distinguished 
worth, to be his governor, and M- 
Skyte, one of the beft fcholars of 
the age, to be his preceptor. Un- 
der him Guftavus learned the ancient 
languages, eloquence, hiftory, civil law, 
and politicks. A happy genius, a 
prodigious memory, a docility equal- 
ly rare and neceflary, and a great de- 
fire of learning, enabled him to make 
fo quick a progrefs, that at twelve years 
old, he talked and wrote in Latin, Ger- 
man, Flemilh, French, and Italian, as 
well as inSwcdifh; and he had alfo a 
general knowledge of Polifh and Ruffian. 
From the age of feventeen he had given 
fuch ftriking proofs of the extent of 
his underftanding, of the Superiority of 
his genius and his talents', of a con- 
fummate knowledge in the Science of 
war and of ^government, of his pru- 

<?4 Lives of eminent Per/bns. Gujia.vut Adolphus. 

dence and of bis love for his country 
that after the death of his father, 
Charles IX. the ftates of the kingdom, 
thought proper to annul in his favour 
the law, which e'na&ed, that the fuccef- 
for to the crown (hould not act as king 
and as his own mafter, until he was turn- 
ed of 24. The Queen his mother, 
Duke John of Eaft Gothland, and fix of 
the chief fenators, to whom the late 
king had left by his will the regency 
of the kingdom, voluntarily renounced 
it, through a principle of confidence 
in his capacities and virtues. Guftavus, 
therefore, afcended tbe throne Dec. 13, 
1611, and he fignalized his acceffion by 
making fo judicious a choice of the 
beft iubje&s to fill the vacant places, 
as well at court as in the army and the 
finances, that his enemies themfelves 
were-aftonifhed at his difcernment and 
penetration. He then chofe for chan- 
cellor the celebrated Axel Oxenflern, 
whofc genius and talents were a lbrt 
of prodigy, and who became after- 
wards one of the greateft men in Eu- 

Though Guftavus was detached from 
pleafures by a variety of important and 
difficult affairs, which feemed fufficient 
to engrofs his whole attention, his 
fufcepttble heart, did not efcape the al- 
lurements of love. The young Coun- 
tefs of Brahe, infpired him with the 
mod tender and lively parCon, infomuch 
that he would have married her if the 
Queen his mother, without condemn- 
ing bis choice, or feeming to oppofe his 
delign. had not artfully prevailed with 
him to defer it, which gave time for 
his love to abate and vanilh. Thefe 
young lovers carried on a correfpond- 
ence by letters, which are ftill preferv- 
ed. " They are valbable fays M. de 
M. on account of that fimplicity and 
virtue which charafterife them. A- 
midft the expreflions of the molt live- 
ly tendernefs, we difcover an ingeni- 
oufnefs, a purity of fentiment, an in- 
nocence of heart, that are equally in- 
terefHng and delightful. There even 
(nines in full fplendour that piety, that 
fear of God, that fund of religion, 
which always eflentially diftinguiflied 
this great King." This paffion was dif- 
fipated by the tumult of arms, and 
Guftavus efpoufed in 1640, the Prin- 
. cefs Mary Ejeonora of Brandenbourg. 
This Prince was remarkable for a 
rectitude of mind,- for a love of juftice, 
that no interefted views could ever vary. 
At the beginning of his reign, an occa- 
fion offered of displaying it. He was 

engaged in a law-fuit with a gentleman 
named Seiblat, on account of fome 
lands. Tbe caufe was to be tried by the 
fupreme court, the king repaired thi- 
ther, and would al(b fit in judgment, 
but he defjred the magiftrates to re- 
gard nothing but their conferences in 
the decree which they were about to 
make. The Judges gave fentence in 
the gentleman's favour, and the king 
having examined the evidence, con- 
demned himfelf, and applauded the in- 
tegrity of the Judges. 

So great was the confidence which 
all the Proteftants had in his zeal and 
his understanding, that the, univerfity 
of Heydelberg, flattered herfelf, that he 
would be readily difpofed to terminate 
the divifions that prevailed between 
the Calvinifts and Lutherans, and with 
this view (he fent to him the celebrated 
David Parous, in order to reprefent 
to him, that nothing could do him 
greater honour than the compofing theft 
differences, and eftablilhing an unity of 
doctrine between the two Proteftant 
communions. Guftavus loaded Parzus 
with commendations and prefents ; he 
approved of the objett of his deputa- 
tion, as being a defign whole execution 
was defireahlie ; but thinking it imprac- 
tible, he declared that very important 
reafons did not permit him to inter- 
meddle in an affair of that nature; that 
he wifhed the Proteftants would be 
united in heart, if they could not in 
fpirit ; and that he prayed God to re- 
unite all men in charity, it being mo- 
rally impoflible that they Ihould all have 
precifely the fame faith. 

Till the year 1625, there was no re- 
gular troops in Sweden, except fome 
companies of foreign foldiers. Gufta- 
vus then formed and began to execute 
the project of having 80,000 men, con- 
stantly on foot, well armed, well dis- 
ciplined, and commodioufly cloathed, 
which (hould be maintained in time of 
peace by the corporations of the king- 
dom, and in time of war by the pub- 
lic treafure, and which ihould be re- 
placed by the like number whenever 
they (hould march out of the kingdom, 
that there might be always in the na- 
tion an army ftrong enough to defend 
it. This defign took place without 
the leaft difficulty, fo great were the 
refpeft, the confidence, and the lovi 
which the ftates and the people had 
for their king. On this plan, the kings 
of France and Sardinia have formed 
their militia. 


Lives of Eminent Perfins. Guftavus Adtlpbus. 6f. 

About three or four years before this, ■ 
*he king had publiflied a new military 
code ; he had made confiderable altera- 
tions in the manner of arming the ca- 
valry and infantry, In the formation of 
regiments, of fquadrbns, and battalions, 
in their refpaftive difpofitions, and in 
their method of exercifing, forming, 
marching, and engaging ; he had in- 
vented a new order of battle, which was 
afterwards ad6pted by all Europe; he 
had abolifhed carabineers, or horie 
mufqueteers ; in Ihort, he had created a 
rjew art of war. But above all, nothing 
could exceed the difcipline which he efta- 
blilhed among his troops'; he introduced 
» rigorous iubordination of one rank to 
another in every particular corps, and 
among the officers of his army ; he fe : 
verely punifhed thieves, incendiaries, 
blafphemers, gamefters, and debau- 
chees ; he caufed divine fervice to be 
ftriclly obferved, and made the officers 
affift at it, and lead their foldiers thi- 
ther. Thus his corps were more like 
■well regulated cities, where reign a love 
of order, and the fear of God, than an 
aflemblaze of libertines, who have no 
other vocation, than a tafte for licen- 
tioufnefs. He knew all his officers by 
name, and promoted than according 
to their merits. He eftablifhcd a coun- 
cil of war, in order to determine all 
difputes that might happen between the 
officers, and he forbad duelling under 
..pain of death : If my officers, faid he, 
*will fight, let them fight my enemies. I 
■would have them befoldters, nt gladiators. 

Guftavus 'laved and cultivated the 
iiiences. He enriched the univerfity of 
Upfal, and he founded a royal academy 
at Abo, and an univerfity at Dorp in 
.Livonia. He amufed himfelf by reading 
the bed authors of thofe times. The 
treatift De, jure belli ac pads, agreeably 
engaged him in the midft of war, and 
he hnmouroufly faid, That he would Jhew 
Crotius the difference there -was between 
theory and praBice; how eafy it is to give 
rules, and how difficult to follow them. 

On Auguft II, 1627, this hero, who 
expofed himfelf to the greater! dan- 
gers, with too little precaution, being 
on an eminence, in order to examine 
the pofitions and motions of the enemy, 
was fuddenly attacked by two Poles, 
who would infallibly have killed or ta- 
ken him prifoner, if fome officers had 
not fuccoured him in time. This did 
not hinder him from continuing to fur- 
vey the out-works of Dantzick, in or- 
der to furvey its ftrength and weaknefs : 
And that very day, as he eroded the 

Viftula, he was ialuted by a volley 6f 
mufket foot, of which a ball (truck 
his belly, and pierced it quite ihiough. 
He then defired, that without making 
any noife, he might be laid on the 
ground, and that his chaplain and fur- 
geon might be fent for. The wound 
was thought mortal, notwithstanding 
which it was cured. This accident 
kept the Swediih army in a (late of 
inaction, and preferved for that time, 
the city of Dantzick then befieged. 
Soon after he was again wounded by a 
mulket ball, which pierced his right 
moulder, within two inches of his neck. 
They took him otFhis horfe, and hav- 
ing on the field applied the firft drefling, 
they conveyed him to Dirfchau. There 
the wound was opened, and his phyfi- 
cian, alarmed at its appearance, which 
feemed to him highly dangerous, could 
not help faying that he had forefeen this 
misfortune, and that his Majefty ex- 
pofed himfelf too much. The king 
replied only in thefe words, Nefutor 
ultra crep'idam : " Mind your own buii- 
nefs." The furgeon having determined 
that it was impoflible to extract the 
ball, Then let it remain there faid the king 
without emotion, and let it be as the mo- 
nument of a life which has not beenfpent 
in idlenefs end pleafure. He was three 
months ill of this wound. 

Without following the Swedifh hero 
in all his military expeditions, we can- 
not omit the parallel which our author 
draws between the great Scipio and 
Guftavus Adolphus : " Since (he de- 
parture of Scipio from Lilybjeum, in 
order to attack the Carthagenians in 
their own country, aud in the fight of 
their gods, no fleet had ever failed 011 an 
expedition more important than that 
of the king of Sweden, who undertook 
to curb the pride and power of the 
houfe of Auftria by carrying the war 
into her dominions. 

But Scipio led all the forces of the 
Roman empire againft a republic often 
fubdued, and Weakened by her lofTes 
and even Ly her luccefs. Guftavus went 
with a handful of foldiers to encounter 
an emperor more powerful than ever 
Carthage was; an emperor, who had 
never futfered the leaft check, and whofe 
forces were encreafed in proportion to 
his fuccefs. He went to tngage with 
Generals as brave, as crafty, as expe-- 
rienced as Hannibal, and with troops 
infinitely more valiant and better dif- 
ciplined than the Haves and merce- 
naries of ^Carthage; and more ani- 
mated by the motive of religion, a 
I motive 

^6 Lives of eminent Ptrfons. Cnfiavut Adolphlis. 

motive fo capable of infpiring fidelity, 
attachment, and a contempt of death. 
The defign of the Swedifh hero, was 
therefore much more daring than that 
of parting into Afiic, which had never 
■before entered into the thoughts of any 
pf the Roman Generals, and which all 
ages have fo admired. But it mud not 
fie imagined, that this of the king of 
Sweden, in older to be m< re great, and 
more daring, was rafh, and one of thofe 
which can only be juftiSied by fuccefs. 
No ; every thing was conducted with, the 
utmofl forefight ; all the fnccefTes of 
Gultavus, was wholly owing to his un- 
common prudence, his valour, and his 
fuperior talents in the art of war. He 
was alfo favoured by fome happy cir- 
cumstances, to which providence gave 

Before he entered on the territories of 
•he empire, GuAavus published a ma- 
nifesto, in which he fet forth the 
Strong inducem«nts which obliged him 
to turn his arms againft the emperor ; 
he then parted into Pomerania, and 
made hlmfelf matter cf many places. 
Torquato Conti, who commanded the 
Imperiaiilrs, retired under the cannon 
of Garz, and fhut>himfelf up in impreg- 
nable entrenchments, while he waited 
for a reinforcement. Winter approach- 
ed ; the Imperialists badly cloathed, 
without money or provisions, hated by 
the nobles, the burghers and the pea- 
fants, on account of their robberies and 
extortions, earnestly defired to go into 
winter quarters. Their general pro- 
pofed it to the Swedes, by his commif- 
iaries who Said, that they thought it 
not gloriousj to brave the inclemency 
of feafons, and to contend with Show^ 
and ice ; that if tbey muft perifh, 
they wilncd to perifh fword in hand ; 
that therefore it was proper to think of 
fettling winter quarters, and that poffi- 
tly during that ceS.fat.ion, the emperor 
and the king of Sweden might be able 
to conclude a lading peace. The an- 
fwer given by the Swedish* commiSTa- 
ries,, is a Striking picture of the Spirit 
tliat reigned in- the armies of Guftavus. 
" Gentlemen, faid the eldeft of them, as 
we were ignorant of the Subject on which 
you defired to. confer with jis, we are 
neither provided with an anfwer nor a 
determination-; nor do we ourfelves 
know what afe the king's intentions. 
NevertSelefs, I believe I may a flu re 
without fear of being deceived, that that 
prince will never agree to the propofal 
of a truce for winter quarters. As he 
himfelf is indefatigable, as he Submits 

to the greateft hardships, hunger, third", 
the fevereft' cold, that he lies down when 
neceSTary, as well on the fhow as on a 
bed, he has reafon to believe that his 
officers and iddius are not more tender 
than himfelf. In Short, the reft of us 
Swedes are Soldiers of winter as well 
as of iummer. We glory in braving all 
fort of dangers. True foldiers are not 
Swallows, who wait till Spring before 
they Shew themfelves ; all iea T cins are 
alike to them, and in the midft of ice 
their hands are never benumbed. Be- 
sides, what Signifies to us, whether our 
enemies perifh by the fword, or by the 
cold, provided they perifh, or leave the 
field to vis ? Can there be a more ho- 
nourable method of triumphing over 
them, than our denying ourfelves the 
comforts and conveniencies of life, in 
order to feek them every where, to at- 
tack them without intermiffion, and at 
times, when lions themSelves lurk in 
their dens.'! This Speech much discon- 
certed the Imperialists ; they retired 
without making any reply, with an in- 
ward foreboding, that perfons of fuch 
a turn of mind, would pot a period to 
their m afters fnecefles. 

We Shall conclude this extract with 
transcribing what Tilly faid in the diet 
of Ratifbon in 1630, when he receiv- 
ed the patent of Generaliffimo of the 
armies, which were to act againft Gufta- 
vus-; remarkable words; which furnifh 
us with an eulogium of that Prince, the 
IcSs fufpicious, as it comes from the 
mbuth of an enemy. " The king of Swe- 
den is a valiant prince, in the prime of 
life, and of a constitution naturally ro- 
buSt, and ftrengthened dill more by the 
moft violent exercifes. He has as much 
courage as ambition ; as much penetra- 
tion of fpirit, as ambition of foul ; 
he has made prodigious warlike prepa- 
rations for his German expedition. 
The States of his kingdom have grant- 
ed him all the fupplies he wanted ; 
there is the rooSt perfect harmony be- 
tween them; they have the fame mind, 
and the fame opinion. His army com- 
pofed of S-wttlcs, Livmans, Fmlandcrs, 
Laplander!, Germans, Engftjh, Scotch, 
and other nations, is the bell disciplined, 
and the mod experienced that can be 
feen ; and thefe people fo different in 
manners and languages, are all moved 
by the fame Spring, viz. confidence in 
the king's capacity, the love of refpeit 
with which he ha inspired them by his 
virtues. Behold a gameSrer by no means 
defpicablc, and to whom, if nothing 
can be gained from him, we muft at 


he lV 
vinci , 

, i.ivonr to lofe 'nothing." Tilly 

• cntally the truth of what 

^ jiiiii always have been in- 

:, :; he bad not encountered a 


( To he continued.) 

For the Pennsylvania Maga- 

Practical Chemistry. 



IT is feldom found pure in 
mines, and has different co- 
loured ores ; black, yellow, afh, 
and lead coloured : This laft ufu- 
ally yields half its weight of metal, 
and is mining when broke, and 
ponderous* It is alfo found in red 
or white rocky ftones, and is fome- 
times in form of dice with (hining 
lead coloured furfaces ; fometimes 
mixed with white, yellow, or green 
fluors. The white, red, and yel- 
low, are poor kinds. Some ore 
is fo like fteel, that the workmen 
call it fteel ore ; which is more dif- 
ficult of fuiion than ordinary, and 
is therefore mixt with other ore, 
by the workmen. There is ano- 
ther that from its aptnefs to vitrify, 
and its ufe in glazing potters vef- 
fels, is called potters ore. The 
Englifh ores are reckoned better 
than of other parts of Europe, and 
are in three claiTes : thofe which in 
the ordinary ways of melting afford 
from 30 to 40 lbs of metal, for 
every 1 OO lbs of ore ; the fecond 
from 45 to 60 lbs ; the third from 
60 to 80 lbs, per 100 lbs. 

Practical Chemiftry. 67 

they ladle it out and caft it into 
pigs in an iron mould. Mr. Glanvil 
gives the following account of the 
lead-works at Meridid in Somer- 
fetfhire: " They beat the ore 
" fmall, walh it clean in a running 
" ftream, and fift it in iron rud- 
" der»; then thry make a hearth 
" or furnace of clay, or fire {tone, 
" and therein build their fire.which 
" they light with charcoal, and 
" keep up with young oaken gads, 
" blown with /belkwsk After the 
" fire is lighted, and the fire plnce 
" hot, they throw the ore on the 
" wood, which mt-lts down into 
" the furnace ; and then with an 
" iron ladle they take it out, and 
" caft it in fand." But it is.fuch 
ore as is mixed with earth; and 
ftones, that is to be powidred and 
warned ; and fuch as contain Py- 
rites, which is not' uncommon, 
mult be roafted two or three times, 
to burn away the fulphur, then 
powdered and warned ; and, if ve- 
ry refractory, mixed with the com- 
mon black flux. The black flux 
is made of I part nitre, and 2 parts 
common tartar, reduce euch to a 
powder, mix them together, de- 
flagrate the whole in a crucible, by 
lighting the mixture a-top, which 
thus turns to an alkaline coal, and 
is to be pulverized and kept clofein 
a glafs,, to prevent its' diffolving, 
by admitting the air to get to ft; 
which would damage it ; and if 
fome duft of charcoal be mixed 
with it, it will tend to prefcrve it. 

Smelting Lead Ore. 
Some lead ore, requires no pre- 
vious preparation to its being 
fmelted, unlef3 by grinding. They 
barely throw it upon a wood fire, 
or a forge hearth, where the metal 
running into a bafbn in the hearth, 

Common Salt. 
This be made from the «va- 
ter of pur bays and rivers, or from 
fait fprings. Be not^ifcoaraged 
by jgupprenenfions thaf your wa- 
ter^w not fait enough. If it is at 
all fait, or but barely brackifh.try 
jt : You will find fuMcient fait for 
I 2 your 

6 4 

Injiances of tecovering Things Troft~bitten> 

your purpofe. It will only require 
a little more wood and attendance; 
but will be as ufeful as other fait. 
" The fait produced from the fea 
•water of all the world, and from 
the brine of all the fprings in the 
world, is absolutely the fame ; 
but differs in ftrength and fome 
other qualities', only according to 
the operation by which it is pro- 
duced." In general, the quicker 
the boiling or evaporation, the 
weaker the fait ; the flower the 
boiling, fimmering, or evaporation, 
the ftronger, and larger the grain. 
For by a ftrong boiling not only 
the fimple water is thrown off, but 
much of the acid fpirit of the fait, 
which is the valuable part of it, 
for preferving meat, &c. Where- 
fore fait produced by the force of 
the fin's heat only, being the flow- 
eft operation, is larger grained and 
ftronger than what is made by fire. 
You, my poorer friends, who 
live near to fait rivers, fait licks, 
and fjlt fprings, accept the follow- 
ing inftru&ions for procuring to 
yourfelvcs the fait you want, in a 
very fimple eafy way. Into an 
iron pot, the larger and fhallower 
the better, though the leaft will 
do, put your river water ; boil it 
half down, fill again and again, re- 
peating the boiling and filling up, 
until the fait appears in the bot- 
tom under the water, when there 
remains but 1-4 of the pot full ; 
then pour off the liquor, turn the 
fait into a wooden or earthen 
bowl, raifing it into a high heap, 
and let it drain, dry, and harden 
in the air. But obferve to boil it 
flower and flower, after three or 
• four times filling, until at length 
it only fimmers. Brackifh fpring 
water is to-be ufed the fame way. 
But as to fait licks ; take of the 
earth, and in a tub or cafk, pour 

an equal quantity or near twice a* 
much water, ftirring it well, and 
let ftand till next day ; then draw 
off the water as clear as you can, as 
you draw off your lye from afhes : 
boil this clear lye flowly, and fim- 
mer it, until the fait appears as 
above. Note, You muft not boil 
too low after the fait is formed, 
left the remaining liquor, called 
Bittern, fhould be intangled with 
the fait, which would occafion the 
fait to diffolve in damp weather. 
And obferve to take your river wa- 
ter from the channel, at full tide, 
and in dill calm weather, that it 
may be as clear as you can poffibly 
get it. And take care to let your 
lye be clean. Ail mixtures of dirty 
fediment, &c. greatly leffen the 
goodnefe of your fait. 

Mr. Aitken, 

A Correfpondent has given you 
fome Facts on Froft: — You are 
welcome to the following from 
another Correfpondent. 


Gentleman, now living in 
a neighbouring colony, af- 
firms, that in Rufiia, of which he 
is a native, it is cuflomary in fe-> 
vere frofty weather, inftead of giv- 
ing the hat, as with us, for people 
meeting, to flop and peep into 
each others faces, If nothing is 
amifs, they pafs in filence ; but if 
either cheek, the nofe, or the eari 
appear frozen, notice is given by 
the ftranger, by faying, " Sir, 
your right ear 1 , &c.'' and on he 
paffcs : Upon this the affected 
perfon applies a poultice of fnow 
to it. It is to be under ftood, that 
the perfon whofe ear is frozen is 
infenfible of its being fo ; — there 
being no feeling in the frozen part, 


Arguments Againft playing 

In February 1772, I haled out 
of the mud three river turtles, and 
carrying them home, they remain- 
«d fome weeks in an open cellar ; 
when finding them in a very fevere 
froft, froze as ftiff and hard as ice; 
in the midfl of blaming myfelf for 
fuffering the poor creatures to die 
fo by inches, and wifhing for the 
power to reftore them to Hfe, — and 
>Oh ! how chearfully would I re- 
ftore them to liberty ! — I deter- 
mined to make a trial. The Ruf- 
fian recovers his ears, and I had 
recovered oranges frozen — why 
may not thefe poor turtles, by me 
fo cruelly ufed, be recovered — the 
vitals may yet be untouched. They 
were inftantly put into a pail of 
water, fr.efh drawn from a well; in 
few hours the two largeft were well 
recovered, and lively as when I 
/caught them — the fmalleft conti- 
nued lifelefs; but they were all put 
into the river, on the edge of deep 

In the winter of 1769, 1 had a 
box of four oranges froze as hard 
as ice. They were put into water 
juft; drawn from a well, — they re- 
covered, and fqueezed as well, and 
as free from bitternefs, and in all 
refpecls looked and tailed as well, 
as if they had not been froze. — 
One of them I placed in a window ; 
it froze quite hard a fecond time, 
and was ip like manner recovered, 
Mnd became as found, well tailed, 
and welj to the fight as ever. 

T. C. D. 

lor the Pennsylvania Maga- 

.Arguments again/} Playing at 
Cards on the Lord's Day. 

THE Cemjnandmentby Mofes 
to ketp holy one day in 

Cards on the Lords- Day. 6j 

feven, obliges every Ghriftian,Matt. 
v. 17. Chriji came to enforce the 
moral, and fulfill what was only 
reprefented by the ceremonial law. 
Therefore the commandment, fo 
far as it is holy, j'ujl, and good in 
itfelf, Rom. vii. 12. is yet in 
force, and as much a rule to a dif- 
ciple of Chrift, as it was to a def- 
cendant of Abraham : though nei- 
ther we nor our fervants are no<v> 
bound to keep the Jcwijl? Sabbath, 
or Saturday, which day had a re- 
lation to the particular circum- 
ftances of the Jews, before their 
nation was deftroyed. That ob- 
fervation, was to preferve amongft 
them the remembrance of an e- 
vent, in which they alone were in- 
terefted, Deut. v. 1 5. But we are 
certainly bound to keep holy, or 
feparate one day out of feven, in 
honour to God our Creator ; and 
to dedicate all our time on that 
day to his fervice, as much as ever 
it was the duty of the Jews under 
Mofes's law ; who were debarred 
from all employments on that day, 
except works of necefiity and cha- 
rity, which are warranted by our 
Saviour, ,Maff. xii. 1, 3, 4, 5, 
7, 9, — 14. But the gofptl, tho' 
it abrogates the ritual observation 
of the law, which was to ceafe at 
the appearance of him, who was 
to put an end to the diftindta'ons of 
Jew and Gentile, takes off no re- 
ftriclions, that are fuch upon our 
wrong tendencies, or blameable 
difpofition in us ; does not releafe 
us from any practice that ferves to 
check, prevent, or reform our 
vices : nor licenfeth any thing, 
that can contribute to make us 
lefs ferious and virtuous. Ii» a 
word, the equity of the law abid- 
eth for ever. And we that enjoy 
greater privileges and promifes 
under Cbri/l, are more ftritlly o- 


<><> Arguments againjl playing Cards on the Lords-Day. 
bliged to obfqrve all the precepts on the Lord's Day, muft be a 

in the law of Mofes, that contri- 
bute to form us in thoughtful nefs 
and ferioufnefs ; — to improve us in 
wifdom ;— and to better our dif- 
pofitions ; — to remit our diver- 
lions ; — to reft from our labour ; 
and to affcmble for the purpofes 
of religion. 

All this is fo manifeft, that to 
avoid its conviction, it is preten- 
ded, by thofe that love diver/ions, 
' . that diverfions are confiftent with 
l * the obligation of the Sabbath, 

* when, as they word it, the du- 
' ty of the day is over, and ,has 

* been discharged.' 

Now to wave the abfurdity of 
the notion of the duty of the day 
being over at fuch a certain hour 
of it, or when fuch particular 


It is a joke to fay that Play is 
an innocent amufement. — The 
chance, that attends it, is a per- 
petual alarm of hopts and fears; 
continually agitates the fpiriti 
with various fuccefs or difappoint- 
ments : and tho' no ftakes are de- 
pending, its very pleafure is the 
frequent change which Play makes 
in our pafUons : but where a con- 
fiderable fum is to be hazarded, it 
naturally throws the mind into a 
difordered ftate : confequently, it 
is always blameable on the Lord's 
Day, which ought to be fet a-part 
for cur improvement in virtue. 

Nor, was our. Play attended 
with calmnefs and equality of tem- 
per, could it be lawful. Are not 

forms have been complied with ; Jix days in the week enough for it? 

I will ftiew you that Play, in a 
moral light, cannot coniift with 
the duty of the day. — No one is 
better, merely for his devqtional 
exercifes heard, or curforily read 
by us ; fuch a one is as little be- 
nefited in a moral way, as a natu- 
ral man is nourifhed by the food 
he never digefted : Yet this is the 
duty of the day, as our Gamejlers 
call it. They that have bad habits 
to conquer, muft confefs, that 
the bare hearing of a Termon, and 
fayiag a few prayers, will never 
effect it : they muft confefs, that 
the difficult and neceflary. work of 
reformation requires alfo medita- 
tion, that what we have prayed 
for, and heard, may at all times 
act with their full weight upon us. 
Therefore, whatever diverfions and 
amufements , that can be any hin- 
d/rance to the minds receiving 
from thofe ads any lading impref- 
fions of duty, or dilSpate our 
thoughts, or efface the ferioufnefs 
laifed in us by fuch. a3s of religion 

What can be more properly with- 
in the commandment, that forbids 
Jervile work, than the fixed atten- 
tion ; the exertion of all our faga- 
city ; and the keeping our memo- 
ry upon the ftretch to gain from 
another, what he Ihews the greateil 
unwillingnefs to part with; or to 
avoid loofing what we ' ourfelves 
have no fort of reafon to hazard i 
This muft deprive the gamefter of 
all the duties of the day, as it will 
leave no impreflion upon the mind, 
that may be of ufe in his future 
life. And I dare fay, that who- 
ever confiders this day as only fet 
a-part for moral improvements, 
will condemn all kind of gaming 
on the, Lord's Day, were there no 
other reafons to difiuade us from it. 
Nothing but covetoiifnejs , and 
the thirft of gain, can engage any 
one to game every day, let the 
pretence be what it wi]l. It is fel- 
dom known, that thefe daily 
gamefters play for fmall fume ; 
and it muft be granted, that it 


Arguments againji playing Cards on the Lords-Day. 67 

muft be" owing to an immoderate 
defire to win, where the conteft is 
fo eager for large ones. Again, 
where any amufement or diverlion 
which only pleafeth our pafiions, 
is preferred to another, which 
might preferve or reftore our 
health, improve our underftand- 
ing, compofe our mind, and bet- 
ter our heart, it certainly is crimi- 
nal, if we make it our conftant 
choice, inftead of what might have 
relieved us, and been of real ad- 
vantage to us. 

What can hurt our fpirits more, 
than the frequent alarms, which 
are the certain attendants of high 
plays. Its difappointments four 
our tempers. The loofer plays on 
to change his luck ; the winner is 
never fatisiied with his luck : fo 
that neither of them know any end 
of gaming. And frequent play 
-excludes all rational methods of en- 
tertainments ; and, what is worfe, 
it will too often poftpone necefTary 
bufinefs. Hence we may account 
for the misfortunes of fome of the 
beft families in cities and pro- 
vinces. -How often do their mis- 
fortunes bring on that wretched 
cuftom of drinking to drown their 
cares, as it is pretended ; but it 
certainly ruins their health. And 
if the gamefter chance to be a fe- 
male, fhe feldom lofes her money, 
without lofing her modefty alfo. 

Now as thefe are the bad confe- 
quences of gaming ; it cannot be a 
proper amufement on the Lord's- 
day ; and, indeed, the beft legis- 
latures, have looked upon it to be 
fo mifchievous to fociety at all 
times as to punifh it, as the bane 
of good morals, and the fchool of 
■vice, idlenefs, and knavery. 

Should we only confider the 
praftice of gaming on Sunday in a 
prudential light, we fhall find that 

it has a bad tendency towards 
making our inferiors and fervants 
lefs induftrious, frugal, fober and 
honeft : which, to fay the beft of 
it, is very hurtful to the wealthier 
and fober part of mankind. 4 Let 
us only fuppofe 20,000 men wirfi 
fwords in their hands, corrupted 
by the example of their officers, 
playing at curds or die* on the 
Lord\-day ; and it muft be feared, 
that inftead of defending our reli- 
gion and property againft our ene- 
mies, they will degenerate, they 
will in the end become a burthen 
and nufance to this growing coun- 
try. — What a fadinftru&ion muft 
it be for a child to fee its parents, and 
perchance be permitted to play at 
cards every day, ar.d every fea- 
fon I fuch children generally be- 
come diffolute and worthlefs. — 
Youth are too prone to pleafure., 
to be thus prompted to what they 
ought to be diftuaded from. And 
it is a very great chance, if the 
gaming humour of the parent does 
not pals, with all its bad qualities, 
into the mifconduct of the child : 
and where it may fortunately hap- 
pen otherwife, it muft be .afcribed 
to the gooM inclinations of the 
child, and not to the, care of thofe 
who ought to have corrected 
them. — The fame example pafies 
upon our fervants. And how 
much their corrupt morals may 
injure our credit, our fortunes, 
and even our lives, I could in- 
ftance by many fa&s within our 
memory. Our dofnefticks will 
endeavour to fave their reputation 
at the expence of ours. They 
think it no crime to vilify their 
piafter to clear themfelves. We 
frequently experience the weight, 
which is made by wafte, or unfair 
advantages made by them in our 
families. All which is generally 


Method ef Manufaftiiring Gan-Powieri 


owing to our bad example, which 
corrupts their principles : and no 
example, in my opinion, can be 
worfe than gaming on the Lord's- 
day, whofe fervants we are, and 
wbo^E fervice we fhould only at- 
tend on that day. Therefore, how 
can it be fuppofed that our fer- 
vants, if they find this day wholly 
difregarded by us, or a conjidera- 
ik part ofitfo fpent, that it can 
be of no confequence to our mo- 
rals how the reft has been em- 
ployed, will nor difregard it as 
much ; and imitate the diverfions 
of the chamber, parlour and draw- 
ing-room in the kitchen, {tables, 
and coach-houfe : where, if they 
loofe, it becomes an enducemcnt 
to difhonefty ; and, if they win, 
it is a great chance but it is fpent 
in Iewdnefs and intemperance, or 
otherwife draws them into a way 
of life in no manner fuitable to 
their income ; which, by unjuft 
means, muft be made up out of 
their mailer's purfe. And when 
thefe particulars have been well 
confidered, I doubt not but it 
will be confeffed, that they are 
guilty of a breach of the fabbath- 
day, that turn it into a day of 
human fport, gaming or amufe- 

Method of Manufacturing 

{From the Chemical Dictionary, lately 

GUN- Powder is of an intimate mix- 
ture of 75 parts of putrified nitre, 
of 15 1-2 parts of charcoal, and of 9 I-a 
parts of fulphur. The quicknefs of the 
kindling of this compofit.ion, and the vi- 
olence of the explofion occafioncd by this 
fiidden infiammarion, is univerfally 
Inown. The theory af the detonation 
of gun-powder is exactly the fame as that 
of the detonation of nitre v.ith any other 
inflammable matter. 

The goodnefs and force of gun-pom 
der depend upon two eflential points, 
firft, that all the contained nitre be in- 
flamed ; and fecondly, that this inflam- 
mation be made in the fhorteft time poC> 
fible, and almoft in an inftant. 

The proper quantities of fulphur and 
of charcoal in the compofition of nitre, 
procure the inflammation of all the con- 
tained nitre; and the quicknefs and force) 
of th}.» inflammation depend upon the 
intimacy and accuracy of the mixture of 
the component parts of the powder. 

From experience we find that the pro- 
portions of the fereral ingredients men- 
tioned above are the beft, that is, they 
are iufficient for the detonation of the 
whole nitre. A larger quantity of fulphur 
and charcoal would leffen the force of the 
powder ; becaiife although thefe Tub-* 
fiances be inflammable, yet the force of 
their inflammation is nothing in compa- 
nion of detonating nitre. Care muft be 
taken that no uninflammable matters be 
mixed with the gun -powder, and there- 
fore the nitre muft be very well purified, 
and freed from the common fait mixed 
with it, which is not inflammable; and 
alfo from the falts with earthy bafes, 
which are contained in the mother wates 
of nitre, and which have the bad quality 
of attracting powerfully the moifture of 
the air, as this quality, renders thefe 
falts capable of fpoiling powder, in other 
refpects good. 

The quicknefs of the inflammation 
of gun-powder depends not only on 
the purity of trie nitre and on the 
juft proportion of the ingredients, but 
alfo onthe accurate distribution, and in- 
timate mixture of thefe. The reafbn of 
this is very evident. As the falt-petre 
cannot be inflamed but by means of im- 
mediate contact with fome inflammable 
matter, we may eafily perceive that the 
finer the particles are of the falt-petre, 
and alfo of the fulphur and charcoal, and 
the more intimately thefe three ingredi- 
ents are mixed, the greater is the number 
of the points of contact, fince the fur- 
face of each of the ingredients is thereby 
increafed ; and hence the quicker the de- 
tonation muft be. Accordingly all the 
operations in the making of gun-powder 
are to compleat thefe two intentions. 

For this purpofe, nitre of the third 
boiling, and well purified, is chofen, and 
alfo very pure fulphur and good charcoal. 
The charcoal of light woods is generally 
employed ; but Mr. Beaume, who has 
very minutely and accurately examined 
in this matter, affirms from experience, 
that the charcoals of heavy and hard 


A Narrative of the Ship-wreck t>f Emanuel Crefpel. 69 

woods, if they have been well made, are 
as fit for the' purpofe. Thefe three ingre- 
dients are mixed in the proportions above 
mentioned, and a very fine divifion 'and 
intimate mixture are made of them, by 
pounding them together, during twelve 
hours, in a wooden mortar, and with a 
wooden peftle. This mixture muft be 
carefully moiftened from time to time 
with fome water, to prevent the matters 
when too dry from being raifed and dif- 
lipated by this long trituration, and to 
prevent the mixture from kindling by 
the heat occafioned by the repeated 
ftrokesof the peftle. In large works, a 
mill is employed for this trituration, in 
which wooden mortars are difpofed in 
rows, and in each of which a peftle is 
moved by the arbor of a wheel turned by 
water, as in paper mills. 

When the trituration is fiuiflied, the 
powder is made. Nothing then remains 
to be done but to dry it very (lowly but 
compleatly. The powder is in this (late 
compofed of very fine parts, which are 
therefore liable to moiften in the air, to 
adhere to any thing; to foil the fingers 
and the infide of fire arms, into which 
alfo it does not eafily Aide. Thefe incon- 
veniences are remedied by reducing it to 
fmall fmooth grains, larger for cannons, 
and fmallerfor mulkets. 

The operations by which the powder 
is reduced into grains are very fimple and 
well imagined. For this purpofe, it is 
placed to a certain thicknefs upon fieves, 
the holes of which are of a proper fize ; 
upon this ftratum of powder a thick piece 
of wood is placed horizon:ally, and pref- 
fes upon the furface of the powder. All 
this apparatus is to be agitated horizon- 
tally in feveral directions. The weight 
of the piece of wood forces the powder to 
pafs through the holes of the fieve, and 
to form itfelf into molecules of the fize 
of the holes. The powder is by this 
means granulated, but is not rendered 
fmooth. In its rough ftate it is ufed for 
artillery ; but for fmall arms it muft be 
fmoothed, and this is effected by an ope- 
ration as (imple as the preceding. 

For this purpofe a hollow cylinder or 
calk is mounted upon an axis, which is 
to be turned by a wheel. This calk is to 
be filled half full of the powder to be 
fmoothed, and it is to be turned fixhours. 
The friction occafioned by this motion 
of the parts of the powder again ft each 
other, is fufficient to fmooth their fur- 
faces. The granulation and fmoothing 
of gun-powder cannot be performed with- 
out a part of it being reduced to a fine 
powder, which is to be feparated from 

Voi. II. 

the reft by a ftarce, and to be afterwards 
granulated. Thofe who require more par- 
ticular information concerning this ma- 
nufacture, or other arts and trades, may 
confult the DiSionnaire portatif des arts 
& da metier 1. 

An affeiling Narrative of the Ship- 
•wreck o7"Emanuel Crespel, 
on the I/land of AnticoM, in the 
Month of November, 1736. 
Tranflated from the French. 

t / J HIS narrative <was ivrote by 
father Crefpel, in the year 
1752, andfent to his brother ; 'who 
foon after publijbed it in French. 
An ingenious Correspondent, 'who 
tranflated it from the original, has 
favoured us 'with the copy. It noiu 
for the firjl time appears in Englijh, 
and <we think it cannot fail of being 
acceptable to our readers. 

The authors of the Monthly 
Review fpeaking of this narrative 

" Father Crefpel was a Miflionary in 
Canada, and having fpent about ten 
years in that country, he embarked at 
the clofe of the year 1736 to return to 
France; and in his pallage thither was 
wrecked with fifty-four perfons upon the 
ifland of Anticofti. This iiland lies in 
the mouth of the river St. Lawrence, 
having Labrador or New Britain upon 
the north, and that part of Nova Scotia 
which the French call Gafpefia to the 
fouth. It is not eafy to conceive any fet 
of men more compleatly wretched, or to 
a greater degree unhappy either by fea 
or land ? People more miferably pinch- 
ed by want, or expofed to a feries of 
more afflicting difafters. Father Crefpel 
with twenty-feven of his diftrefied afibci- 
ates eroded over to Labrador in hopes of 
finding fubfiftence, inftead of which 
they fuftered to the utmolr, whatever 
hunger, cold, nakednefs and difeafe 
could inflict; in fhort they all periihed 
except three. Thirteen ,who embarked 
in a canoe were loft at fea, and of the 
twenty-four that remained in Anticofti, 
there were but four, who. by the ftrejigth 
of their conftitutions, ftiuggled through 

K the 

A Narrative of tT>e Shptiireck of Emanuel Crefpel. 

may juftify its publication : fof 
by this account, lately refcued 
from the obfcurity of the French 
original, aud now cah\ as an addi- 
tional mite' into the Englifh trea- 
fury, we are given to lee in the 
mod moving and ftriking manner, 
the miferies to which man is fub- 
jett, fo long as he continues a fo- 
journer in the inclement climate of 
this lower world ; and may be 
taught to fet a higher value upon 
the innumerable and- unnoticed 
bleflings we calmly enjoy, by 
contemplating the calamities to 
^which we are liable, and which it 
is not impoffible, but at the fame 
moment fome of our fellow crea- 
tures may affli&ingly experience. 
The Tranflator's PREFACE, whilft many are bafking in the 

funfliine of pleasure, or fitting at 
eafe in the heighth of plenty : in 
confederation whereof, the grateful 
and fenfible mind muft be induced 
to magnify and praiie, that hand 
of eternal goodnefs, which fup- 
ports and protects us, and who 
marveloufly manifefts that he is a- 
ble to preferve in the mod immi- 


the difmal variety of calamities with 
which they were overwhelmed in that 
-Miofpitable place ; in the fpring father 
Crefpel joined them with his compani- 
ons. The whole ftory is told with the 
greateft plainneis and perfpicuity, with- 
out any other ornament than a few pious 
and edifying reflections. We muft ex- 
cept the conversation which the father 
informs us they had with a favage, who 
he repreftnts, as thinking and fpeaking 
more fenfibly than feems confiftent with 
that character. v 

" This little piece the publick owes 
to the brother of the author, who certi- 
fies the truth of all that is therein relat- 
ed ; and it muft be allowed, that it is in 
every circumflance, as affecting a narra- 
tive as is to be met with in any language, 
and merits in this refpefl the welcome 
reception it has already met with from 
the world." 

Monthly Review, Vol. 19. P. 300. 

TH E following afte&ing lit- 
tle narrative is held in the 
higheft eftimation among the 
French, particularly in Canada, 
where it is kept with religious 
care in one of their convents, 
being with difficulty to be met 
with in America ; and fo choice of 
it are the Canadians (in whofe 
country the misfortune happened) 
that when a gentleman of Phila- 
delphia engaged a friend of his to 
enquire for and if poffible procure 
it for him, he could find but one 
in the hands of a private perfon, 
who would not part with it on any 
terms, telling him with great ear- 
neftnels " II vaut fon poid en or." 
" That it was worth its weight in 
gold." And if this fhould not be 
the fentiment of every one that 
may perufe it, yet it is without 
doubt fuch as will meet with ap- 
probation, and adminifter a pleaf- 
ing gratification to the generality 
of readers. ' But there are more 
weighty reafons than the mere 
gratification -.o.f curiofity, which 

nent danger, and to deliver from 
the very jaws of death itfelf. 

the Author after fome account of 
the Country and of his tranfafti- 
ons, during a refidence of about 
twelve years in Canada, addref~ 
fes his Brother by way of Letter 
thus : 


N writing you an account of 
my travels, my intention was 
only to have informed you of the 
particulars relative to the fhip- 
wreck which I fuftained in my re- 
turn to France : the circumftancet 
which attended it are extremely 
interesting ; therefore prepare 
your heart for tendernefs and for- 
row. What I am about to iuform 


A Narrative of the Shipwreck ef Emanuei Crefpel. 7 1 

you of will only excite yourcurio- 
fity by increafing your companion, 
blufh not to deliver yourfelf up 
wholly thereto : noble fouls are 
generally fufceptible of the mis- 
fortunes of others. He who is not 
affected at the miferies o£ his bre- 
thren, bears (fo tofpeak) a mark 
of reprobation, which jultly ren- 
ders him unworthy of human foci- 

As I Wcked fome time at Que- 
bec, for an opportunity of return- 
ing to France, there prefented two 
together, the firfl was a King's 
fhip called the Hero, which I did 
not accept, the other was offered 
me by Mr. de Freneufe a Canadi- 
an, defcended from the noble fa- 
mily of D'Amours : the connec- 
tion that was between us, made 
jne accept this offer with pleafure ; 
and I could not refufe his requefl, 
to ferve him in the capacity; of 
chaplain. He was a very worthy 
man, who by an experience of 
forty-fix years, had become a very 
fkilful navigator, fo that Mefsrs. 
Pacaud, paymafters and mer- 
chants of Rochelle, thought they 
could not truft their fhip called 
the Renown in better hands. The 
vefTei was new, a good failer, ve- 
ry convenient, of three hundred 
tons burthen, and mounted four- 
teen pieces of cannon. 

Many gentlemen for their fecu- 
rity and pleafure rcquefted a paf- 
fage with us, infomuch that we 
were fifty-four men on board. - 

We weighed anchor and fet 
fail the third of November, 1736, 
with many other fhips, and came 
to altogether in the Cove of St. 
Patrick three leagues from Que- 

Next day we were obliged] to 
tack it, and arrived the fame day 
at the end of the jfle • of Orleans, 

diffant from Quebec about nine 
leagues, and cait anchor at Cape 

The fifth we prepared to paf* 
the whirlpool, but it was impofli- 
ble to accomplifh it that day, io 
that we were obliged to return to 
the place from whence we depart- 
ed, to avoid being carried away 
by the current which lets very 
itrong a great diftance from this 

We were more fortunate the 
next day, for we pafied the whirl- 
pool without danger, with Mr. 
Veillon who commanded a brig 
for Martinique, and who, like 
ourfelves could not pafs it the day 

The fhip with which we fet fail, 
paffed it the firfl trial, thus being 
without company we came to an 
anchor at La Fraire near the Ifle 
jiu Coudre. 

The feventh we continued our 
way to the ifle Au Coudre, and 
from thence to' Mathan, where 
there arofe a light north wind, 
the danger whereof our captain 
being fenfible (efpecially at that 
feafon) confefied we had much to 
fear ; be therefore thought it ne- 
ceffary for us to feek a harbour, 
where we might be flickered from 
the ftorm which threatened us : 
ihortly after the wind obliged us 
to veer about. 

• The next day being the ele- 
venth of the month about eight 
o'clock in the morning, it chop- 
N. N. E N. 
and E, &c. and 
S. E, where it 
days. During 
we beat off and on 

ed about 
E, E. N. 
thence to 
blew near two 
all. this time, 



the ifle of Anticofli (near the 
mouth of the river St. Lawrence) 
with our top fails reefed ; but 
when the wind had got round to 
K 2 S- 

A Narrative of the Ship-wreck of Emanuel Crefpel. 

W. we fteered S. E. left (he might be driven and bat- 
tered again It the (hip. The pro 


S. S. W. we 
by E, and S. E, till the 
fourteenth in the morning. This 
day we endeavoured to make 
the coaft, but ran aground about 
a quarter of a league from land, 
on the end of a reef of flat rocks, 
about eight leagues from the fouth 
end of Anticofti : the ftrokes 
which our (hip gave were fo fre- 
quent, that we feared every mi- 
nute (he would open under us. 

The weather certainly muft 
have been very bad, and the fai- 
lors in defpair of our being faved, 
fince not one of them would ven- 
ture to furl the fails, although the 
great working which they caufed 
to the (hip tended to expedite our 
lofs : the water rufhed in violent- 
ly ; fear took away all prefence of 
mind from mod of our people, 
and the general diforder feemed to 
announce our death. 

Without our gunner our filia- 
tion would have become far more 
dreadful ; he ran to the bread 
room, and although the water had 
already entered there, he threw 
up a parcel of bifcuit between 
decks. ' He thought likewife that 
fome mufquets, a barrel of pow- 
der, and a box of cartridges 
might be ufeful to us in cafe we 
efcaped the prefent danger : for 
■which reafon he caufed them to be 
carried upon deck. His precau- 
tion was not ufelefs, and had it 
not been for that, T mould now 
have been deprived of the fatkfac- 
tion of giving you this account. 

The fea and the wind were e- 
qually boifterous, neither of which 
abated. The waves had carried 
away our rudder, and we were 
forced to cut away- our mizzen 
fnaft and caft it to larboard fide. 
We then hoifted out our yawl, 
taking care to pafs her forward, 

fpeft of death and the hope of re- 
tarding it, gave courage to all the 
people, and although we were cer- 
tain of being miferable in that un- 
inhabited i(land, at lead for iever- 
al months, each of us thought it 
much beft to expofe ourfelves to 
the greateft fufferings for the pre- 
fervation of life. 

After haying launched our yawl, 
we fufpended the longboat by 
tackles, in order the more eafily 
to embark what we had and get 
off, to preferve ourfelves from the 
waves which probably would have 
driven us againft the (hip if we 
had not quickly got clear : But it 
is in vain for men to depend upon 
their own prudence, when God 
intends to lay his hand upon them 
all their precautions are ufelefs. 

We got into the boat to the 
number of twenty perfons, and 
immediately the ring of the fore 
tackle gave way ; judge of our (i- 
tuation : the boat remained fuf- 
pended behind, and of thofe that 
were in her many fell into the fea; 
others remained hanging to the 
benches ; and fome by means of 
the ropes alongfide the (hip got 
on board again. 

The captain feeing the difafter 
caufed the tackle abaft to be ei- 
ther cut or lowered, and the boat 
coming again into trim I jumped 
into her in order to fave Mefsrs. 
Levegue and Dufrefnois, who 
were near being drowned : In the 
mean time our boat was fo much 
battered that the water entered on 
all fides. No rudder, no (trength ; 
a dreadful wind ; an inceflant rain ; 
a fea in fury and reflux : what 
could we expeft but approaching 
diflblution i We ufed our efforts 
nevertheless in order to get off, 


•ne party threw out the water, 
an oar ferved us for a rudder, eve- 
ry thing was defe&ive or contra- 
ry : and to compleat our misfor- 
tunes, two waves which broke o- 
ver us, gave us the water up to 
our knaes ; a third would inevita- 
bly have funk the boat under us. 
Our ftrength diminifhed as "it be- 
came more neceffary, we made 
but little way, and feared with 
reafon that our boat would fill 
with water before we could get to 
fhore. The rain prevented us from 
difcovering a proper landing-place, 
all that we faw appeared very 
fteep ; or rather we faw nothing 
but death. 

I thoucrh\ it was time to exhort 
the people, to put themfelves by 
an aft of contrition in a flate for 
appearing before God. I had hi- 
therto deferred doing it, left I 
fhould augment their fear or damp 
their courage ; but it was now no 
time to withhold, and I would not 
have to reproach myfeif in not 
having difcharged my duty. Each 
one faid his prayer. It was a very- 
moving fpe&acle, to behold the 
men while they were rowing and 
throwing out the water, praying 
the Lord to have mercy upon 
them and pardon their faults, 
which might render them un- 
worthy to partake of his glory : 
at length they became refigned to 
death and waited for it without 
murmuring : as for me I recom- 
mended my foul to God- I recited 
Miferere aloud, and all the peo- 
ple repeated it after me. I faw no 
room for hope, the boat was ready 
to go to the bottom, and I had 
already covered my head with my 
cloak, that I might not behold 
the moment of our deftru&ion ; 
when a fudden guft of wind drove 
w violently on fliore* 

Dumb Speech. 73 

You may imagine with what ea- 
gernefs we jumped out of the boat; 
but we were not altogether free 

from danger : many waves broke 
over us at different times, fome 
beat us down, and we were very 
near being carried into the fea a- 
gain : neverthelefs we refitted their 
violence, and got clear after fwal- 
lowing much water and fand. 

In this confulion one of the 
people had the thought to lay 
hold of the painter, which wa'» 
tied to the boat, without which 
precaution we fhould have been 
loft, as you may fee in the fequel. 
(To be continued in our next.) 

To the Publisher ^^Penn- 
sylvania Magazine. 


Your readinefs to oblige the pub- 
lie with every thing ufeful or en- 
tertaining that may be offered to - 
your Prefs, induces me to fend 
you the following compendious, 
eafy and fecret method t>i Dumb 
Speech ; which though it hath 
been published before, will pro- 
bably be new to the greateft part 
of your readers : It occurred to 
me on feeing the contrivance for 
carrying on a fecret Correfpon- 
dence by means of difguifed Al- 
phabets, in one of your Maga- 
zines. If matter of more impor- 
tant ufe fhould at any time fail, 
this trifle may occupy a place in 
your ag'eeable mifcellany. /By 
inferting it you may amufe fome 
of your Subfcribers, and oblige 
A Correfpondent, 

Dumb Speech, or the art of con- 
verging by the Fingers only, 
as 'well in the dark ai in the light- 

THIS invention confifteth of 
a natural alphabet compofed 




■ - - ■■ T — '■ , J X 




3* — — *— V m 







■a !^»— — 



A&fr, For (£) ( r ) and (z) let 
the Finger be drawn from 
one end of the line where it 
is fet to the other end there- 

Dumb Speed. 


On the human hand, and may be 
learned in the fpace of an hour, 
and executed with fo much readi- 
nefs, when often pra&ifed, that 
you may be able to exprefs your 
fentiments fooner this way, than 
the moft fkilfull artift can write his 
words at length with pen and ink. 

It is to be obferved that the four 
fingers and the thumb of the left 
hand ftand for the five Vowels. 
Thus the tip of the little finger be- 
ing touched fignrfies a, the ring- 
finger <?, the middle finger /, the 
fore-finger o, and the thumb u. 

The Confonants are exprefied 

B, By thethumb and fore-finger 
of the left hand joined by the fore- 
finger of the right hand. 

C, By laying the fore-finger of 
the right hand femicircularly in the 
palm of the left, 

D, By joining the two thumbs 
and the two fqre-finger3. 

F, By crofiing the wrift with the 

G, By putting the two fifts one 
upon another. 

H, By drawing the fore-finger 
round the hill of the thumb. 

K, By the fore-finger ofthe right 
hand laid on the back of the four- 
fingers ofthe left. 

X, By the fore-finger of the right 
hand laid within the fingers of the 

M, By putting three fingers in 
the palm of the hand. 

N, By putting two fingers in 
the fame manner. 

P, By the fore-finger of the right 
hand put between the fore-finger 
and thumb of the left. 

4J_, By compafiing the fore-fin- 

fer ofthe right hand with the fore- 
n^er and thumb ofthe left. 
R, By drawing the fore-finger 
of the right hand quite along the 
middle ofthe left. 

S, By joining the two little fin- 
gers crofs ways. 

T, By laying the fore-finger of 
the right hand directly acrofs the 
palm of the left. 

V, Confonant, by touching the 
thumb nail. 

IV, By putting all the fingers o- 
ver one another almoft crofs. 

X, By connecting the knuckles. 

T, By - putting the fore-finger 
and thumb ofthe right hand to the 
fide ofthe left. 

Z, By making the letter on the 
palm ofthe hand: 

(See the Plate.) 

The ufe of this method is not 
only to fignify our intentions at a 
diftance, and in the light, but in 
company, fo as not to be perceived, 
and in the dark. For, whoever is 
mafter of this alphabet, need only 
lend his hand concealed under a 
hat, a table, or behind him, to one 
that is alfo verfed therein; and he 
may foon difcover his friends mind 
with all the fecrecy imaginable, by 
feeling the fame figures or letters 
made on and about his hand, as 
he would have made on his own 
hand, to exprefs the fame thoughts 
to his friend; becaufe by this way, 
the perfon to whom he fpeaks ap- 
prehends as well in the dark by 
feeling', as if he faw the fame acti- 
ons performed in the light. 

Nor can any thing be contrived 
eafier (when any perfon has this co- 
py of the whole 26 figures here en- 
graved before him) than to make 
fuch and fuch figns by his fingers 
as (according to the rules prefcrib- 
cd) reprefent fuch and fuch letters 
to make up the word he would ex- 
prefs. This is as eafy to be per- 
formed as it is for a fkilfull mufici- 
an to play off a tune at fightj 

Neverthelefs, let no one imagine 
he can arrive to perfection in this 


j6 Eiflory of Uriel Mafia 

fort of converfation, 'till he can 
exprefs the whole alphabet in its 
alphabetical order (without looking 
at thefe inftrudtions) with great 
readinefs. As a boy ought to learn 
to make his letters, before he at- 
tempts to write words. 

To what has been faid, it is ne- 
ceffary to add, that ifyoudefireto 
affirm a thing, point to the eye ; if 
to deny, point to the nofe : But if 
you would neither affirm nor deny, 
point one finger upon the eye and 
another upon the nofe ; which fig- 
nifies / do not know, or the matter 
is to me indifferent. If you would 
exprefs two letters together, as 
double o, double e, double f, or 
any other (except thofe that are de- 
ciphered by more than the fore-fin- 
ger of the hand) you may do it ei- 
ther by two fingers once, or eife 
at twice, as fuits your fancy beft. 
And note, — The throwing out of 
the hand from the body, in way of 
difcourfe, always fignified and, 

Suppofe you was mafter of this 
alphabet and would falute your 
friend who has learned the fame, 
Good morronv Sir! 

You do it, by putting the two 
fifts upon each other, which figni- 
fies G. 

By two fingers put upon the fore- 
finger of the left hand, which is 


By two thumbs and two fingers 
joined which is d. 

When the word is ended, point 
dire&ly into the middle of the hand: 
and give the fame notation at the 
end of every word. 

Again,- by three fingers in the 
middle of the hand is fignified m. 

By the top of the fore-finger o. 

By two fingers drawn along the 
hand rr 

By the top of the fore-finger o. 

By the fingers crofs-vrays orer 
one another ay. 

i. e. morrow. 

The,two little fingers crofs-way» 


The top of the middle finger /. 

Draw along the infide of the left 
hand for r. 

i. e. Sir. 

Thefe three notations carried in 
memory will be your compliment. 
Good morro<w Sir. 

And after this manner all other 
words may be as regularly compo- 
fed as by pen and ink, or any o- 
ther method. 

The Hiftory of Uriel Acosta, as related 
by bim/elf. 

URiel Acosta, of Jewilh extraction 
but of Chriftian parentage, his an- 
cestors having been compelled to profefs 
Chriftianity, was born in the city of 
Oporto in the kingdom of Portugal, at 
the latter end of the 16th century. Hit 
father, he fays, was a fincere Chriftian, 
and being a man of character and fub- 
ftance, gave him a polite and liberal edu- 
cation. He was iuftru&ed, as is the cuf- 
tom there, in the principles of the Ro- 
man Catholic religion ,about which, how- 
ever, he was foon perplexed with doubts 
and difficulties, particularly in regard to 
the article of confeffion and abfolution. 
He followed at this time, not being twen- 
ty-two, the ftudy of the law, and when 
he was abont twenty-five, he obtained an 
ecclefiaftical dignity, viz. that of trea- 
surer in a collegiate church. 

At length being diflatisfied with tho 
Chriltian faith, and knowing that both 
Jews and Chriftians acknowledged the 
infpiration of the Old Teflament, where- 
as the gofpel is believed by the Chriftians 
only, he carefully applied himfelf to the 
ftudy of Mofes and the prophets, and, 
in. lhort, became, as he tells us, upon 
conviction, a Jew. This determined him 
to abandon, if portable, a country in 
which he could no longer remain 'with 
fafety, nor could he without great dan- 
ger make his efcape ; though at laft he 
did effect it, for after refigning his trea- 
furerfliip, and quitting a noble houfe in 
Oporto of his father's own building, he 
got undifcoveredon board a ihip, toge- 

Hiftory of Uriel Atojla. 


ther with his toother and brothers, whom 
he had brought over to his own way of 
thinking, and arrived fafe at Amsterdam. 
Here he found the Jewilh religion fully 
tolerated, and, as their law requires, 
was immediately circumcifed. 

In a few days, however, he perceived 
that the modern Jews had widely depart- 
ed from the cuftoms and ordinances en- 
joined by Motes, which occafioned him 
to remonftrate to the rulers, but in vain; 
tor the leaft non-compliance he was 
threatened with excommunication. And 
as, inftead of being intimidated, he ftill 
perfifted in what he thought his duty, 
this fentence was, thereupon denounced 
againft him with fiich feverity, that even 
his brothers, to whom he had been pre- 
ceptor, when they met him in the ftrect, 
were afraid to fpeak to him. 

Upon this Acofta determined to write 
and publifh his defence; and while he 
was engaged in this work, he was con- 
vinced, he fays, by diligent enquiry, that 
the rewards and punilhments of the Mo- 
faic law were only temporary, that great 
law-giver being wholly filent in regard 
to the immortality of the foul and a fu- 
ture (late. At this his enemies exulted, 
hoping by this means to irritate the 
Chriftians alfo againft him, and with this 
view, before his book was printed, they 
engaged a certain phyfician to publilh a 
treatife on the immortality of the foul. 
This was in the year of the world 5383, 
which anfwers to that of Chrift 1613. In 
this work Acofta was greatly vilified, and 
abufed as being a difciple of Epicurus, 
though at that time, he fays, he was 
fuch a ftranger to the tenets of that phi- 
lofopher, that, judging of them by hear- 
fay only, he had often arraigned them, 
for which, on better information, he 
•was fbrry andafhamed. After this, the 
very childien, encouraged by their pa- 
rents, infulted him publicly in the ftreets, 
calling him a heretic and a renegade. 
They even aflaulted him in his houfe by 
throwing (rones, and ufing all poifible 
means to difturb and moled him. And 
on his publifhing an aniwer to the above 
mentioned treatife, in which he denied 
the foul's immortality, the rulers of the 
fynagogue accufed him to the magistrates 
as an enemy not only to Judaifm but alfb 
to Chriftianity. Upon this he was com- 
mitted to prifon, where he was confined 
eight or ten days, and was then difcharg- 
ed upon bail, after paying a fine of 300 
florins, and forfeiting all the copies of 
his work. (This work was entitled, An 
enquiry ht-o the philofophical tradition com- 
t fired -with the written law.) 
Vol. II. 

Some time after this Acofta began to 
entertain doubts of the authenticity, even 
of the Mofaic law, and at length, he 
fays, was perfuaded that that alfo was a 
fiction. And now thinking it needlefs 
to continue any longer an exile from fo- 
ciety, being excommunicated by the, 
Jews, and ignorant even of the language 
of the other inhabitants, he determined 
to pay an implicit obedience to the el- 
ders, and accordingly, after fifteen years 
feparation from them, he returned once 
more into their communion, retracing 
all he had faid, and (ubferibing to their 

In a few days, however, Acofta was 
informed againft by a nephew who lived 
with him, concerning his food, the man- 
ner of preparing it, and other particulars, 
by which it appeared he was no Jew. 
This occafioned him frefli uneafinefs. 
His brothers and kinfmen (thinking the 
honour of their family at flake) were now 
his bittereft enemies, and kit no means 
untried to diftrtfs and ruin him. His 
coufin-german, in particular, prevented 
a marriage which (being then a widower) 
he was on the point of concluding, and 
prevailed with his brother to keep all his 
fortune in his hands, and to break off all 
correspondence with him. The Rabbis 
alfo, and populace perfecuted him more 
than ever. Add to this, that having 
been confulted by two Chriftians, who 
came from London, the one an Italian, 
the other a Spaniard, who feemed wil- 
ling, on account of their poverty, to pro- 
fefS themfelves Jews, and having difluad- 
ed them from it, telling them the yoke 
they mull undergo, thefe wretches, for 
the fake of lucre, betrayed and informed 
againft him to his dear friends the Pha- 
rifecs. For this he was immediately con- 
vened before the great council, where he 
was told that if he was a Jew he muft 
fubmit to their fentence, and, if not, he 
Aould be again excommunicated. The 
fentence being then read, feemed to him 
fo (hameful and fevere, that, command- 
ing his temper, he calmly replied, ' That 
he could not poflibly fubmit to it.' Im- 
mediately excommunication was de- 
nounced againft him; not contented, 
with this, themfelves, and even their 
children, inftigated by them, fpit upon 
him in the ftreets ; they did not, indeed, 
(lone him, becaufe they could not. This 
continued for feven years, during which 
time he was conftantly perfecuted oh one 
fide by his relations, and on the other by 
the populace. If he was ill, no one came 
near him ; if he wanted an arbitration, 
noue would undertake it, he muft go to 
L law 


aw— a tedious and an expenfive remedy ! 
At length, being quite harrafl'ed, and 
■Ten defpcrate, Acofta determined to 
fubmit to every thing rather than con- 
tinue fuch a forlorn and miferable out- 
caft. How his fentence was executed 
lhall be related in his own words : 

" I entered the fynagogue, which was 
crouded with men and women, as if for 
a fhow, and in proper time I walked up 
to the raifed de(k in the middle of it, and 
theie read with a loud voice, a writing 
prepared by the rulers, in which I con- 
ferred that I deferved to differ a thoufand 
deaths for the crimes I had committed, 
namely, my breach of faith, which I had 
fo flagrantly violated, that 1 had even 
perfuaded others not to embrace Judaifm, 
for whofc fatisfaftion I was willing to o- 
bey their ordinance, and to fubmit to 
the fentence that had been pronounced 
again ft me, promifing never more to re- 
lapfe into the like fin and wickednefs. 
When I had finifhed, I defeended from 
the de(k, and the chief ruler came up to 
me, and in a whifper bade me ftep afide 
to one corner of the fynagogue. I obey- 
ed, and the door keeper ordered me to 
undrefs myfelf. I ftripped. myfelf naked 
to the waift, tied a napkin round my 
head, pulled ofTmy fhoes, and held up my 
arms, embracing, as it were, one of the 
pillars, to which the door-keeper then 
bound my hands. After this) the pre- 
centor gave me with a thong nine and 
thirty, as by the fentence of the 
law the number muft not exceed forty, 
Deut. xxv. 3. While I was fcourged a 
pfalm was fung. I th.n fat down on the 
gisound ; and the preacher coming up to 
me abfolved me from my excommunica- 
tion , and thus the gate of Heaver), fo 
long (hut, was again opened to me. Af- 
ter this I put on my cloaths, and went 
to the threlhold of the fynagogue, where 
I lay down, the door-keeper fupporting 
my head. Then all who went out, 
young and old, ftepped over me; that is, 
lifting up one foot, they trode upon me 
with the other ; and when all was over, 
and none remaining, I rofe up, and be- 
ing cleaned from the duft by him who 
alfifted me, went home. Think, O rea- 
der, what a fight it was to behold an el- 
derly man, of no mean condition, a man 
who was naturally modeft, even to a 
fault, ftripped naked in a public aflembly, 
before women and children as well as 
men, and there fcourged by the fentence 
of fuch as were rather abject flaves than 
judges. Confider how grievous it muft 
be to fall at the feet of my inveterate 
enemies, from whom I had received fo 

Ififtory of Uriel Acofta. 

many infults, fo many injuries, and by 
them to be trampled on. Think that 
my own brothers, fprung from the fame 
parents, educated in the fame houfe, had 
ufed their utmoft endeavours to accom- 
pliih this, forgetful of the affection 1 had 
always (hewn them, and of the many fa- 
vours I had, through life, conferred upon 
them, for which all my recompence was 
difgrace, ruin, and outrages, fo bafe, fo 
heinous, that 1 am alhamed to relate 

The above narrative is extracted from 
a Latin treatife called Exemplar huma- 
ns Vitx, in the latter part of which, 
Acofta arraigns the doctrine of a fu- 
ture ftate and revelation in general. 
The conclufion of it is as follows : 

" At one thing, among others, I 
am much furprifed, and truly furpriz- 
ing it is, viz. how the Pharifees dwel- 
ling among Chriftians, are alloWd to 
enjoy fo much liberty as even to fit in 
judgment; and indeed I may fay, that'' 
if Jefus of Nazareth, whom the Chrifti- 
ans worfhip, was now to preach at Am- 
fterdam, and the Pharifees Ihould a- 
gain be difpofed to fcourge him for 
arraigning their traditions and hypo- 
crify they might freely do it. This is 
certainly, moft ignominious, and ought 
not to be fuffered in a free city, which 
profeflcs to protect men in the enjoy- 
ment of peace and liberty, yet does 
not protect them from the injuries of 
the Pharifees; and when a man has no 
defender or avenger, it is no wonder 
that he endeavours to defend himfelf, 
and to revenge the injuries he has re- 
ceived. Thus you have the true hiftory 
of my life, and I have fet before you 
the part I have afted on this moft vain 
theatre of the world. Now judge right- 
ly of me, O ye fons of men, and, with- 
out prejudice, freely and truely pro- 
nounce my fentence. And if any thing 
herein contained, fhould excite your 
companion, acknowledge and bewail 
the miferie's of mankind, of which you 
yourfelves, alfo are partakers. And 
that nothing may be wanting, know, 
that the name by which I was called 
when a Chriftian in Portugal, was Ga- 
briel Acofta, and that by the Jews, 
(whofe religion I wifh I had never pro- 
fefTed) with a little alteration, 'I was 
called Uriel." 

The above mentioned treatife, together 
with a refutation of the doctrinal part, by 
the celebrated Philip a Limborch, is an- 
nexed by him to his Arnica cum eruiito 
collatio Judito, printed at Gduda, in 
1687, and the account he gives of it, 


Seletl Pdjfages from New Publications. 

and of its author's tragical end, is as 
follows : 

" This treatife, Teems to have been 
compoled by Gabriel or Uriel Acofla, a 
few days before his death, and after he 
had determined to die. For, burning 
with revenge, he firft refolved tov kill 
his brother, (others fay his coufin-ger- 
man) by whom he thought himfelf 
highly injured, and then himfelf. With 
this defign, he fired a piftol at his bro- 
ther (or coufin) as he pafled by his 
houfe; but milling his aim, and feeing 
himfelf detefted, immediately fhutting 
the door, he with another piftol, pre- 


pared for that purpofe, in a (hocking 
manner difpatched himfelf. This trea- 
tife was found in his houfe, a copy of 
it was found among the papers of my 
great uncle Simon Epifcopius, and fo 
came into my hands." 

By confidering the time when the 
phyfician's book on the immortality of 
the foul was publilhed, viz. 1623, and 
the two periods in which Acofta lived 
in a ftate of excommunication, w« 
may thence conclude, though not ex- 
actly, thax his death muft have hap- 
pened about the year 1645. 


A Dijfertation, by IVdy of Inquiry 
into the true Import and Appli- 
cation of the Vifion related Dan. 
ix. ver. zo, to th"e end, ufually 
called, Daniel's Prophecy of Se- 
venty Weeks. By Benjamin 
Blayney, B. D. Fellow of Hert- 
ford College. 4*0. 2s. 6d. 

MR. Blayney informs us, that 
he was led into the prefent 
inquiry by fome ingenious remarks 
which he had received from the 
bimop of Dromore, to whom he 
had fent an extraft of the eight 
laft verfes of the ninth chapter of 
Daniel, from the ancient verfion 
of the Seventy, lately discovered 
and publifhed at Rome. He has 
availed himfelf of this additional 
help, together with other manu- 
fcripts and verfions which he ap- 
pears to have carefully confulted. 
His iludy and criticifm produces 
a translation very different from 
that in the common Englifh Bible. 
We will firft lay this tranilation be- 
fore our readers, and then add a 
few farther extra fts : 


years of reft (or defolation) have 
been upon thy people, and upon thy 
holy city, to check the revolt, and to 
put an end to Jins, and to make a- 
toncment for iniquity, and to bring 
again the righteoufnefs of ancient 
times, and to feat (that is, to au- 
thenticate) the divine oracle and the 
prophet (Jeremiah ) and to anoint 
(that is, to fantlify anew) the moji 
holy things. 

" And thou Jhalt know and un- 
derftand", that from the going forth 
of a decree to rebuild Jerufalem, 
unto the Meffiah the Prince, Jhall 
and TWO YEARS ; it Jhall be 
rebuilt, fill enlarging itfelf, and, 
becoming more and more conjiderable, 
even amidjl times of dijlrefs. • 

" And after the times SEVEN- 
and TWO, Mejfiah Jhall cut off, from 
belonging to him, both the city and 
the fanttuary „■ the Prince that Jhall 
come Jhall deftroy the people ; and 
the cutting off 'thereof 'Jhall be nuith 
a flood (that is, a hojlile invajion) 
and unto the end of a tuar carried 
L 2 on 

80 Seletl Paffaget from New Publications 

on with rapidity Jkall be deflations 

" But he fiall confirm a covenant 
tor make a firm covenant) 'with 
many for one 'week ; and in the midfl 
of the week h,' floall caufe the facri- 
fice .ind meat -offering to ceafe; and 
the abomination of deflation foall 
be upon the border ; (that is, en- 
compaffing and prefing clofe upon the 
city and temple) and an utter end, 
even a fpeeuy one (or, even until 
an utter end, and that a fpeedy one) 
fJitli be poured upon the defolated." 

As it is not uncommon in the 
Hebrew language, by way of em- 
phafis, to reiterate the fame word; 
Mr. Blayney luppofes that inftead 
of feventy iveeks in the beginning 
of the 24th verfe, the number fe- 
venty ought to be repeated, as he 
has given it in the above tranflati- 
on : to confirm which fuppofition 
he obferves the Hebrew words, for 
<weeks, and for feventy, are .very 
nearly the fame, and in this place 
the words are literally alike, the 
vau being omitted in moft manu- 

M. Michaelis fuppofes the true 
reading of that part of the 25th 
verfe, which ftands in our com- 
rAon verfion, unto M.-Jiah the 
Prince, to be, unto the M'fliab, 
and the Prince or General, meaning 
by the latter the Roman General 
Titus : but Mr. Blayney approves 
of our Englifh tranflation in this 
place, which refers the title of 
Prince to our Saviour. His ac- 
count of the numbers in this verfe 
is very different from the common 
rendering, which hy$,fven weeks, 
and threefcore and two -weeks.— In 
fupport of his tranflation he fays, 

' In the Greek verfion of Daniel by 
the Seventy, lately published from an 
ancient manufcript, long fought after, 
and at length happily difcovered in the 
Chigian library at Rome (in which, tho' 
there appears much mangling, interpo- 
lation, and tranfpofition, feme valuable 

readings have been preferred) the num- 
bers are repeatedly given in two places 
of this paflage, [even and feventy and fixty 
two ; and in one of the places we find, 
times, added to the numbers feven and 
feventy, and, years, to the numbers fixty 
two. Thefe numbers 1 apprehend to be 
according to the true and original Trad- 
ing, and we may trace the veftiges of 
them in the Hebrew printed copy itfelf, 
neglefting the vowels only, and allow- 
ing a very fmall and eafy variation. 

Compare, he adds, the numbers thusre- 
ftored and determined, with the hiftorieal 
dates according to the received chrono- 
logy, and you wiil fee an accompliHi- 
ment of the prophecy to an aftonilhing 
degree of exaftnefs. For reckoning fe- 
venty feven weeks, or 539 years from the 
date of Cyrus's decree, which is allowed 
to have taken place in the 536th year of 
the vulgar Chriftian aera ; and confe- 
quently the birth of Chrirt, the firft 
coming of the Mefliah, which by the 
learned is now pretty generally agreed to 
have been in the third or fourth year be- 
fore the commencement of that sera, will 
fall within the courfe of the feventy fe- 
venth week. And farther, if the full 
period of feventy-feven weeks be length- 
ened onwards by the addition of three- 
fcore and two years, we (hall then arrive 
at the fixty-fixth year of the Chriftian 
sera, the very year of the breaking out 
of the Jewifli war, which our Saviour him- 
felf frequently points out for the time of 
his fecond coming. So preeifely and li- 
terally beyond conception was this pre- 
diction verified, in a divided, as well as 
a compounded fenfe, that from the going 
forth of a commandment, or decree, to re- 
build Jerufahm, unto the Meffiah the Prince, 
fliould be feventy and feven -weeks, and 
threefcore and two years.' 

As to the numbers in the follow- 
ing verfes, together with other 
criticifms, we muft leave our rea- 
ders to confult the work itfelf, and 
we fhall finiih this article by a few 
extrafts from the conclufion : 

' Some perhaps, obferves our author, 
may be diffatisfied at not finding an y 
longer in this prophecy, the proof of 
that particular article of Chriftian faith 
which has commonly been underftcod to 
be witnefled in it. Far, very far, am I 
for wilhing to weaken any part of that 
evidence, which is afforded us for the 
confirmation of any of thofe facred 
truths, which are moft furely believed 
among us. But if the doltrine of our 


Seletl Pajfages frcm 

Saviour's death for the fins of mankind 
be not here to be met with in reality, as 
I am perfuaded it is not, who can be juft- 
ly blamed for acknowledging the truth ? 
Nor do I think the credibility of the doc- 
trine is in the leaft degree fhaken or af- 
fected by the want of (uch an atteftation. 
For if the illuftration of this prophecy 
tends to the confirmation of the gofpel 
truth in general, it tends alfo to the con- 
firmation of every particular article which 
that gofpel teaches. And I know not 
what it doth teach, if it doth not teach 
with the greateft plainncfs and perfpicu- 
ity, that Chrifl Jefus died for our Jim, and 
not for his own, the juji for the unjujt, that 
he might bring us to God. This at lead I 
am certain of, that if any one Ihould be 
fo weak and unfettled in the faith, as to 
remain unconvinced by the exprefs decla- 
rations made on this head by our Saviour 
and his apoftles, he would hardly be per- 
fuaded by any additional teftimony, that 
could poflibly be derived from the words 
of this prophecy. 

' One word or two more let me add, 
with refpect to the purpofe and defign of 
revealing this heavenly vifion. Some 
perfons have Teemed to imagine, and have 
argued on the fuppofhion, that the mat- 
ter of this prophecy mud needs be con- 
fidered as of a favourable kind, and not 
to contain threats of evil, as we fee it 
does, becaufe it was delivered to Daniel 
in anfwer to his prayer, and by way of 
conlolation to him, at the fame time that 
he is declared to be in efpecial favour with 
God. But I fee not the leaft ground for 
fuch a prefumption. All, I think, that 
can reafonably be concluded from its 
having been granted in confequence of 
Daniel's prayer, is what I have already 
inferred at the beginning of this inquiry; 
namely, that it might fairly be expected 
to have been in point, or at leaft not 
foreign to the matter of the fupplication. 
And on this footing it was furely a dif- 
tinguifliing mark of God's great favour 
towards him, that he Ihould be thought 
worthy to participate of the divine coun- 
fels at firft hand, of what nature foever 
thefe counfels were, and mould be em- 
ployed as an instrument of conveying 
that knowledge to others. The begin- 
ning of the vifion indeed founded favour- 
ably ; but the end was exceedingly harlh 
and bitter; and undoubtedly muft have 
appeared fo to one, who felt for his coun- 
try fo affectionately as the prophet Da- 
niel did. But what then ? Muft God 
alter and reverfe the order of his decrees, 
or even fupprefs and keep out of fight 
the afflictive part of them, when it was 

New Publications. 


otherwife convenient to make them 
known, for fear of adding to the forrows 
of this good man? Or when do we find him 
fointemperately lavifn of the ' miraculous 
interpofiticins of his providence, as to 
make fuch high and important difcoveries 
of his future defigns, merely to gratify 
the curiofity of, or impart fome confola- 
tion to, an importunate individual, how 
examplary, or how acceptable foever for 
his piety?— —Again, as little reafon is 
there to fuppofe, that this revelation was 
given by way of feafonable and friendly 
warningto the Jewifli nation, in profpett 
of exciting them to repentance. In other 
places they are earnestly called on to re- 
form their mifdoings, are Ihewn the ne- 
ceflary confequences of their perfifting in 
wilful difobedience, the judgments and 
the promifes of God are conditionally 
held forth to them, and no means left 
Untried to revive in their minds a fenfe 
of duty, whenever it feemed to decay or 
lofe ought of its proper influence amon^ 
them. But in Daniel's predictions we 
fee, for the moft part, no condition an- 
nexed, all is abfolute and fimply decla- 
rative, and moft certainly to be perform- 
ed in its fealbn ; doubtlefs, becaufe God, 
who foretold the evils, forefaw at the 
fame time the provocations that would 
infallibly lead to them. A warning how- 
ever we may fafely conclude was intend- 
ed, but not to them whofe fate was in- 
evitably pronounced, but to others in 
fucceeding ages, to convince them that 
all this was not the effect of blind chance, 
but that the counfel of the Almighty had 
planned it, and his right hand brought 
it to pafsi and to engage them for their 
own benefit to attend to and confider 
thefe difpenfations of his providence. All 
iheje things happened unto them for enfam- 
p/es, and they are •written for our admoni- 
tion, on whom the ends of the -world are 
come. Happy if we duly apply the admo- 
nition, and fuffer it to have its proper 
effect and influence on our conduct !' 

Curfory Remarks made on a Tour 
through fome of the Northern 
parts of Europe, particularly 
Copenhagen, Stockholm, and Pe- 
terjburgh. , By N. Wraxal, jun. 
8vo. 5 s. 

THIS ingenious traveller 
juftly obferves, " that the 
furvey of nations ,and view of 


82 SelsSl Pajjages from New Publications. 

foreign and diffimilar modes of had the honour of being prefented t<» 
ailing and thinking to our own, 
is not only formed to enlarge the 
human mind, and correct its ear- 
ly prejudices, but it is calculated 
to charm and delight in a fupr;me 
degree, as it has for its bails two 
paffions, molt powerfully condu- 
cing to pleafure, I mean novelty 
and admiration," 

As he travelled on a more lau- 
dable principle than the genera- 
lity of thofe who travel, fo his 
fteps were judicially directed to 
thofe parts, where the greateft no- 
velties were to be expe&ed, and 
where the objects of his attention 
were likely to be more curious and 
interefting to a philofophical mind, 
than the grand tour fo often made, 
and fo N often defcribed. If he 
mould be thought to have moved 
with great velocity in paiTing o- 
ver near 3000 miles round the 
Baltic, in little more than five 
months ; it ought to be confider - 
ed, that his gratifications were 
oftener of a mental than of a fen- 
fual kind, and that the body is 
more impatient under difagreeable 
circumftances than even the mind : 
the want of accommodations which 
an Englilh traveller feels perhaps 
more than auy other, and the ge- 
neral poverty of the countries he 
vifited, made him glad to hurry 
from the place of departure, to 
that of his deftination, as fpeedily 
as he could, meeting with few 
temptations on the road to protra'ft 
his journey. 

The following particulars, re- 
lating to the unfortunate Count 
Struenfee, dated from Copenhagen, 
will not be unacceptable to our 

" I promifed in my laft letter to give 
you fome little account of the court. I 
rauit, however, premife, that I have not 

the Sovereign here, as is cuftomary with 
ftrangers from the other kingdoms of 
Europe. It is fiifficient that 1 am an 
Englifhman not to with it; and indeed, 
wit!) fo jealous an eye are we regarded 
at prefent, in this capital, that I can 
allure you* that 1 have it from the moft 
refpeftable and incontestable authority, 
that fo little individual as myfelf, fo 
humble and unknown a traveller as I 
am, is not only publickly thought of, 
but even fufpefted as a fpy, becaufe I 
come from England, and have no avow- 
ed motive, except curioflty and know- 
ledge. 1 have never, therefore, been at 
the levee, which ia every Friday ; but 
I go to the drawing-room, and mingle 
unnoticed among the crowd. I was 
there laft night, when his Majefty, the 
Queen Dowager, and Prince Frederic 
the king's brother, were prefent. To 
give you a piftuVe of the court as it now 
exirts, I muft carry you back to -the 
time of the late celebrated and unhappy 
favourite, Count Mruenfee. I have 
made it my endeavour, fince my arrival 
here, to gain the moft authentic and 
unprejudiced intelligence refpeiiing him, 
and the late extraordinary revolution, 
which expelled a queen from her throne 
and kingdom, and brought the minifters 
to the fcatfbld. I hiall only inform 
you of fome few anecdotes, which elu- 
cidate his character, and with which 
you may be unacquainted ; though, as 
I never pcrufed the printed account of 
his life and trial, which appeared in 
England, you muft excufe me if I re- 
peat what you have feen there. 

Struenfee, as you know, had not any- 
noble blood in his veins, or confequent- 
ly any hereditary and prefcriptive title 
to the immediate guidance of affairs of 
ftate. Fortune, and a train of peculiar 
circumftances coinciding with his own 
talents and addrefs, feem to have drawn 
him from his original mediocrity of 
condition, and placed him in a ele- 
vated rank. He originally practifed phy- 
lio at Altona on the Elbe, and after- 
wards attended the prefent king of 
Denmark on his travels into England, 
in quality of phyfician. On his return, 
he advanced by rapid ftrides into the 
royal favour, and feems to have eminent- 
ly poflefled the powers of pleafing, fince 
he was equally the favourite of both 
the king and queen. He was inverted 
with the order of St. Matilda, inftituted 
in honour of the queen, created a count, 
and poflefled unlimited minifterial power : 
His conduit, in this fudden and un- 

SeleEl Pajfages from New Publlctiaons. 

common eminence, marks a bold and 
daring mind; perhaps I might add, an 
expanded and patriotic heart. Unawed 
by the precarious tenure of courtly 
greatnefs, and more peculiarly of his 
own, he began a general reform. The 
ftate felt him through all her members; 
the finances, chancery, army, navy, no- 
bles, peafants,-i-all Were fenfible of his 
influence. He not only dictated, but 
penned his replies to every important 
qucftion or difpatch; and a petition, 
or fcheme of public import and utility, 
rarely waited two hours for an anfwer. 
At prefent, I am told, you may be two 
months without receiving any. The ci- 
vil judicature of this capital was then 
veiled in thirty magistrates. Strucnfee 
fent a meflage to this tribunal, de- 
manding to know the annual falary or 
penfion annexed to each member : ra- 
ther alarmed at this enquiry, they fent 
an anfwer, in which they diminiflied 


More's, whom tyranny, or public bafe- 
nefs, and want of virtue, have brought 
in almoft every age, to an untimely 
and ignominious exit ; but to whofe me- 
mory, impartial pofterity have done 
ample juftice." * 

Such it feemss are the reports 
on the fpot, waich may be col- 
lated with thofe of wider circu- 
lation; without the hope of our 
fpeedy knowing, with certainty, 
the fecret fprings of thofe poli- 
tical events which happen in our 
own days. The ways of ftatef- 
men are paft finding out; and they 
muft be young in hiftory and po- 
litics, who give minifters the cre- 
dit of conducting public meafures 
upon the common principles of 

their emoluments two- thirds, and efti- , private morality : nor are inftanco 

wanting, recent as well as ancient, 
to illuftrate the danger of at- 
tempting reformation in courts. 

Of Count Brandt, we have the 
following account: 

" This unfortunate man rofe chiefly 
under Struenfee's aufpices, though he 
was originally of an honourable defcent. 
During the refidence which the court 
made at one of the royal palaces, that 
of Hcrelholm, it happened that his 
majefty quarrelled with Brandt, and 
which was Angular enough, challenged 
him. This the Count, you may ima- 
gine, declined. When they met foon 
after, the king repeated his defiance, 
and called him coward , and Brandt ftill 
behaving with temper, as became a !'ub- 
je£l, he thruft his hand into his mouth, 
feized his tongue, and had very nearly 
choaked him. In this fituation can it 
be wondered at, that he fhould bite 
the king's finger, or ftrike him, or 
both ? Self-prefervation mjil neceffarily 
fuperfede every other feeling at fuch a 
moment, and plead his pardon. By 
Struenfee's mediation the quarrel was 
immediately made up, and the king 
promifed never more to remember or re- 
fent the circumftance of his ftriking 
him. Yet was this blow given to pre- 
fervc himfelf from imminent deftruftion, 
'and from the fury of. an enraged man, 
made the pretence for his condemnation. 
They faid he had lifted his hand again ft 
the king's facred perfon, which was 
death by the laws of Denmark. — His 


mated them at 1500 inftead of 4000 
rix dollars, (about 7 s. 6d. currency.) 
The Count then informed them, that 
his Majefty had no farther occafion for 
their fervices, but in his royal munifi- 
cence and liberality, was gracio'ufly 
pleated to continue to them the third 
part of their avowed incomes, as a 
proof of his fatisfaftion with their con- 
duct. He at the fame time conflituted 
another court, compofed only of fix 
perfon s of approved integrity, to whom 
the fame power was delegated. He 
proceeded to pur^e the chancery, and 
other bodies of the law. Then enter- 
ing on the military department, he 
at one ftroke broke all the horfe-guards, 
and afterwards the regiment of Nor- 
wegian fool-guards, the (inert corps in 
the fervice, and who were not difband- 
ed without a (hort, but very dangerous 
fedition. Still proceeding in this falu- 
tary but molt critical and perilous a- 
chievement, he ultimately began to at- 
tempt a dimunition of the power of 
the nobles, and to fet the farmers and 
peafants at perfect, liberty. You muft 
not, — you will not wonder that be fell 
a vi&im to fuch meafures and that all 
parties joined in his de'ftiuOion. Thefe 
were his real crimes, and not that he 
was too acceptable to the queen, which 
only formed a pretext. It was the mi- 
nifter, and not the man, who was be- 
come obnoxious I do not pretend, in 
the latter capacity, either to excufe or 
condemn him; but as a politician, I rank 
him with the Clarendon's and the 


Selefl Paffages from New Publications. 

lawyer, J am told, made an excellent de- 
fence for him, and very forcibly re- 
markedlhe very effential difference be- 
tween aflaulting his fovereign, and only 
defending himlelf from a private at- 
tack. " One of our former monarchs, 
faid he, (Chriftian the Vth.) was ufed 
frequently ufed to unbend himfelf among 
his nobles : on' thefe occasions, it was 
his cuftom to fay, " The king is not 
at home." All the courtiers then be- 
haved with the utmoft freedom and fa- 
miliarity, unreftrained by the royal 
prefence. When he chofe to refume his 
kingly dignity, he faid, — " The king is 
again at home." But what, added he, 
muft we do now, when the king is 
never home .'" — This feems more like 
the fpeech of an Englifhman than a 
Dane, and breathes a manly and unfet- 
tered fpirit. 

" The fkulls and bones of thefe un- 
happy men, are yet expofed on wheels 
about a mile and a half out of town : 
I have viewed them with mingled com- 
miferation and horror. They hold up 
an awful and affecting leflbn for future 

Adding fuch fa£ts to thefe 
with which all hiftory is crowded, 
what conclufions will free and 
liberal minds draw as to royal- 
ty ? comparing their facred Ma- 
jefties of Pruflia and Denmark 
.together, will th'ey not think that 
kings are equally terrible, whe- 
ther they are diftinguifhed by 
genius, or by a total want of it? 
and that it is leaft dangerous to 
have a king of plain common 
fenfe, who can difcover that two 
and two are four, without mak- 
ing a miftake, and without hav- 
ing any pretenfions to depth of 
penetration? After all, contingent 
circumftances, may render a po- 
litive deciiion on fuch a queftion, 
extremely difficult. 

From Denmark Mr. W. pro- 
ceeds to Sweden, he defcribes 
Stockholm, Carlfcroon, and the 
iron mines of Danmora, in an 
amufing intelligent manner; and 
treats of the late well known re- 
volution that took place in that 

The reader will be well enter- 
tained by M. W.'s defcription of 
Peterfburgh, the Emprefs, her 
court, and palaces; together with 
his remarks on the character and 
conduct of the Czar Peter I. Our 
fair countrywomen may perhaps 
derive fome fatisfa&icn beyond 
that of merely gratifying their 
curiofity, in reading his account 
of the Ruffian ladies. 

" The genuine Ruffians who are un- 
adulterated by a commerce with other 
nations, evidently partake much more 
of Afiatic than of European manners : 
the men among the lower clafs univer- 
fally wear the beard, in defiance of all 
the rigorous edicts iffued by Peter the 
I. to abolilh this barbarous cuftom. 
The women in general only bind their 
heads with pieces of filk or linen, very 
nearly 'refembling in appearance the 
ealtern turband, and accomodate the o- 
ther parts of their drefs pretty near- 
ly to ours. I ■ have, however, feen ma- 
ny of them in the old Mufcuvite habits 
of the different provinces, which are 
curious and grotefque in the higheft de- 
gree. In fomc the head-drefs projects 
fix or eight inches from the forehead, 
and is enriched with pearls ; in others, 
it is a fort of bonnet laced, and fitting 
clofe round the head ; nor is the reft of 
their habit lei's lingular. 

" I am only juft from being a fpec- 
tator of one of their cuftoms, at which 
1 could not help being a little furprif- 
ed. It was a promifcuous bathing of 
not leis than two hundred pcrfons of 
both fexes. I know you will recollefl 
lady Montague's defcription of the baths 
of Sophia, and expedf fomewhat of the 
fame nature; but nothing can be more 
oppofite or unlike. The vivid colouring 
of her pen, has called up a fcene more 
voluptuous and glowing, than any which 
Ovid imagined, or Titian drew ; we fee 
the Houris of Mahommcd realized, and 
beauty in all its naked magnificence ; 
but this was a fight rather expreffive of 
difguft than defire, and to which only 
curiofity could have ever led me. There 
are fcveral of thefe public bagnioj in 
Peterfburgh, and every one pays a few 
copiques (value an Englifh halfpenny) 
for admittance. There are, indeed, 
feparate fpaces for the men and women ; 
but they feem quite regardlefs of this 
diftiuftion, and fit and bathe in a ftatc 
of abfolute nudity among each other., 




■What is equally extraordinary, they go 
firft into a room, heated to fo intenfe a 
degree, that it is fcarce poffible to 
breathe in it; and after having remained 
there, till their bodies are in the moft 
violent perfpiration, they inftantly ei- 
ther plunge into the cold water of the 
Neva, or elfe thro.v a quantity of it over 
them from littie buckets, with which 
they are all provided for this purpofe. 
This may only harden a Ruffian con- 
stitution, but, I believe, would be found 
to have very different effefts on an 
Englifh one. The greater part of the 
women were the moft hidious figures I 
ever beheld, and leminded me of Ho- 
race's Canidia, for whom they were 
♦ery proper companions. I counted half 
1 dozen young girls who appeared tole- 
rably pretty, and they never could have 
been viewed to move advantage than 
near fuch foils. As a ftudier of nature, 
I confefs this as proper a fchool as can 
be imagined, fince fancy <an hardly fi- 
gure an attitude, which is not be found 
here ; but as a voluptuary, I would ne- 
ver vifit it more. 

" A gentleman, with whom I hap- 
pened to be-in company feme days fince, 
communicated a remark to me on the 
Mufcovite women, which 1 thought in- 
genious, and may very pofliMy be true. 
We were talking of-the Indian dancing 
girls, whom I have feen at Goa, Man- 
galore, and other places on the coaft 
of Malabar, who, it is known, are ca- 
pable of cohabitation at eleven years 
of age, and frequently have children at 
thole years : a circumftance refulting in 
a great degree, to their proximity to 
the fun, which ripens men as well "as 
plants ia thofe tropical latitudes. 

" Tou mult not, however," faid he, 
" apprehend that the fame rule ieve;ud 
holds good among us, and thai kecaufe 
an Indian is arrived to maturity at 
eleven, a Ruffian i> not fo till twenty- 
two. The females in this cou»t*y are 
all forced, and brought forward in de- 
fpight of nature : during the winter 
months, they are conftantly 111 apart- 
ments heated to a vaft degre*, from 
which they enter upon a hafty, but hot 
fummer of two or three months. The 
confcquence of this, fuperadded to their 
warm baths, of which they are very 
fond, is, that they want, like every 
other artificial production, the genuin* 
flavour which only nature can give. 
That charming firmnefs and elaftitity 
of flethfo indifpenfibly neceffarv to con- 
ftitute beauty, 10 delicious to the touch, 
and lb provoking to the appetite, ex- 
ifts not among the Ruffian females, or 
in very few of them." — I mult own this 
obfervation appears not only founded on. 
reafon, but was moft ftrikingly exempli- 
fied in the atlembly where I was prefent 
this afternoon. 

" Apart from this concealed and un- 
certain defect, I cannot /ay much in 
praife of the charms which the ladies 
difcover ; indeed, I am told, the ftiU 
of lovclinefs is not a little different from 
ours, and that to pciTefs any pre-emi- 
nent degree of it, a woman mu'.t weigh 
at leaft two hundred weight, Prior's 
criterion will not do here, and they 
would laugh at his " Fine by degrees and 
beautifully Ufi" as a falfe and vitiated 
tafte. The late Emprefs Elizabeth, 
was one of thefe ponderous and mafly 
beauties, and fuch fhe appears in the 
portraits 1 have feen of her." , 


For the Pennsylvania Magazine. 

A New Song. 

Tune, As Jamie gay blithe gang d his -way. 

AS Colinet and Phoebe fat 
Beneath a poplar grove, 
With fondefttiuth, the gentle youth 
Was telling tales of love. 

Dear blooming maid, the fhepherd faid, 

My tender vows believe, 
Thefe downcaft eyes, and artlefs fighs 

Can ne'er thy faith deceive. 
Vol. II. 

From fair to fair, though fome there are, 

Delighting wild to rove, 
Such change thou ne'er from me can'ft 

Thy charms fecure my love. 

Then Phoebe now approve my vow, 

By truth, by fondne!'. preft, 
A fmile afliime, to grace thy bloom 

And make thy fhepherd bleft. 

A Mufh o'erfpread her cheek with red, 

Which half (he turn <1 afide ; 
With pleating wr>es her bofem rofe 

While thus the maid reply'd : 



Full well, dear youth, I know thy truth, 

An4 all thy arts to pleafe; 
But, ah-! is this a time tor blifs, 

Or themes Co foft as thefe. 

While all around we hear no found 

But wars terrific flrain ; 
The drum commands our arming band* 

And chides each tardy fwain. 

Our country's call aroufes all 
Who dare be brave and free, 

My love mall crown the youth alone 
Who faves himfelf and me. 

'Tis done, he cry'd, from thy dear fide. 

How quickly I'll be gone! 
FroPT love will I to freedom fly, 

A flave to thee alone. 

And when I come with laurels home" 

Ard all that freemen crave 
To crown my love thy fmile (hall prove; 

The fail- reward the brave. 


A T A i. e \ 
[From the Gentleman's Magazine.] 

TH E tree of deepeft root is found 
Leaft willing !rill to quit the ground; 
Twa* therefore ("aid by ancient fages 

1 bat live ■>{ life encreas'd with years 
So much, that in our latter ftages 
When pains grow (harp & ficknefs rages, 
Thf greateft love c,i life appears. 
This great affection to believe 
Which all confefs, but; few perceive, 
If old adertions can't prevail, 
Be plea<'d to hear a modern tale. 

When fports went round and all were 
On neighbour Dobfons wedding day, 
De-ith call'd afide the jocund groom 
With him into another room, 
And looking grave — you mult, fays he, 
Quit your fweet bride 8c come with me.— 
With you ? and quit my Sufan's fide ! 
W'th you .' the haplefs huiband cry'd : 
Young as I am — 'tis monftrous hard — 
Befides, in truth, I'm not prepar'd; 
My thoughts on other matters go ; 
This is my wedding night, you know. 

* The excellence of the fentiment convey-; 
eiin this l.ile mu,l of elegize for tbt iadnefi 
tj'tbt vtrjijfcat'iQn. 

What more he urg'd I have not hearS, 
His reafons could not well be ftronger ; 
So Death the poor delinquent lpar'd, 
And left to live a little longer. 
Yet calling up a ferious look, 
His hour-glafs trembled while he fpoke. 
Neighbour, he faid, farewell ? no more 
Shall Death difturb your mirthful hour; 
And further, to avoid all blame 
Of cruelty upon my name, 
To give you time for preparation, 
And fit you for your future ftation, 
Three feveral Warnings you (hall have 
Before you're fummon'd to the grave, 
Willing, for once, I'll quit my prey 

And grant a kind reprieve, 
In hopes you'll have no more to fay, 
But when I call again this way, 
Well pleas'd, the world will have. 

To thefe conditions both confented 
And parted perfectly contented. 

What next the hero of our tale befell 
How long he liv'd, how wife, how well. 
How roundly he purfued his courfe 
And fmoak'd his pipe and ftroak'd hie 
The willing mufe (ball tell : 
He chaffer'd, then, he bought, he foU 
Nor once perceiv'd his growing old, 

Nor thought of death as near ; 
His friends not falle, his wife no flirew, 
Many his gains his children few, 

He pafs'd his hours in peace 
But while he view'd his wealth encreafe, 
While thus along life's dufty road, 
The beaten track content he trod, 
Old time whofe hafte no mortal fpares, 
Uncall'd, unheeded, unawares 

Brought on his eightieth year. 
And now one night in mufing mood 

As all alone he fate 
Th' unwellcome meflenger of fate 
Once more before him flood. 

Half kill'd with anger and furprife, 
So foon return 'd ! old Dobfon cries. 
So foon d'ye call it, De-.tth replies 
Surely my friend you're but in jeft. 

Since I was here before, 
'Tis fix and thirty years at lead, 
And you are now four fcore. 

So much the worfe, the clown rejoin'J; 
To fpare the aged would be kind : 
However, fee your fearch be legal ; 
And your authority — is it regal ? 
Elfe you are come on a fool's errand 
With but a fecretary's warrant. 
Befides, you prornifs'dme/frcrJf'flnijfjj-j; 
Which I have look'd for nights and 

mornings ; 
But, for the lofs of time and eafe 
I can recover damages. 

I know, cries Death, that, at the beft, 
I feldom am a welkome gueft ; 




Bin, don't be captious friend, at leaft; 
I little thought you'd ftill be able 
To flump about your farm and ftable ; 
Your years have run to a great length, 
I wifh you joy tho' of your ftrength. 

Hold, fsys the farmer, not fo faft, 
1 have been lame thefe four years part. 

And no great wonder, Death replies, 
However, you ftill keep your eyes ; 
And fure, to fee one's loves and friends 
For legs and arms would make amends. 

Perhaps, fays Dohfon, fo it might, 
But I have lately loft my light. 

This is a (hocking ftory, faith ! 

Yet there'sfome comfort ftill, fnysDeath 
Each ftiives your faunefs to amufe ; 
I warrant you hear all the news. 
There's none, cries he, and if there 
I'm grown fo deaf I could not hear. 
Nay then, tlie fpectre ftern rejCin'd, 
Thefe are ufljuftifiable yearnings 
If you are lame and deaf and blind 

You've had your ttiree fufficient -warnings 
So come along no more we'll pari.— — 
He laid and touch'd him with his dart; 
And now old Do' fin turning pale 
Yields to his fate — Co ends my tale. 



The bumble addrefs of the Houfe of 
Commons to the King. 

Nloft gracious Sovereign, 
" XTfE your Majefty's molt dutiful 
VV and loyal fubje&s, the Com- 
mons of Great Britain in parliament af- 
fembled, beg leave to return your Ma- 
jefty the humble thanks of this houfe for 
your moft gracious fpeech from the 

" Permit us, Sir, to allure your 
Majefty, that we have long lamented 
the condition of our unhappy fellow-fub- 
jefts in America;- feduced from their 
allegiance, by the grofleft mifreprefen- 
tations, and the wicked and moft infi- 
dious pretences, they have been made 
the inftruments of the ambition and 
traiterous defigns of thofe dangerous 
men, who have led them ftep by ftep 
to the llardard of rebellion, v. ho have 
now aflumed the powers of fovereign 
authority, which they exercifc in the 
moft defpotic and arbitrary manner, 
over the perfons and properties of this 
deluded people. 

" Your faithful Commons took a 
fincere part in your Majefty's benevo- 
lent and paternal defire, rather to re- 
claim, than to fubdue the moft refrac- 
tory of your colonies ; and excited by 
your Majefty's great example, we were 
anxious to prevent, if it had been pof- 
fible, the eflufion of the blood of our 
fellow-fubjeQs, and the calamities which 
ire infeparable from a ftate of war; 
we ftill hoped that your Majefty's peo- 
ple in America would have difcemed 
the traiterous views cf their leaders, 
would have confidered how ruinous even 
their fuccels muft be-to themfelves, and 
Jh:en convinced that the constitutional 

fubjection to Great Britain is the frecft 
and happicft condition of any civil fociety 
in the known world ; but we now fee 
with indignation, that r.o other ufe has 
been made of the moderation and for- 
bearance of your Majefty ' and parlia- 
ment, but to ftrengthen the preparations 
of this defperate confpiracy ; and that 
the rebellious war now levied, is become 
more general, and manifestly carried on 
for the purpofe of eftablilhing an inde- 
pendent empire. 

" We beg leave to allure your IV'a- 
jefty of our entire concurrence with your 
Majefty, in thinking it is now become 
the part of wifdom, and (in its elfeOs) 
of clemency, to put a fpeedy end to 
thefe diforders, by the moft e'ecifive 
exertions; and that we learn, with the 
greateft fatisfaclion, that, for this pur- 
pofe, your Majefty has encreafed your 
naval eftablilhment, and grently aug- 
mented your land forces, in fuch a 
manner as may be the leaft burthenfomc 
to your kingdoms ; and we will chear- 
fully and effectually fupport your Ma- 
jefty in fuch nectfljiry meafures, and 
enable your MajcRy/ when the occafion 
lhall r; uire it, to^avail younelf.of the 
friendly offers which your Majefty has 
received of foreign affiftance. We 
thankfully acknowledge the gracious con- 
fiderations, which induced your Majefty 
to fend a part of youi electoral troops 
to the garriions of Gibraltar and Port 
Mahon, in order that a larger number 
of the eltablilhed forces of thi- king- 
dom might be applied to the mainte- 
nance of its authority ; and we are 
bound in duty to return your Majesty 
our particular thanks, for pointing out 
to us from the throne, the coii(;itu- 
tional resources of our well modelled 
M % and. 



end well regulated national militia; 
which upon every great emergency, can- 
not fail of affording fecurity to your 
Majefty.s realm, and giying at the fame 
time, extent and actnrjty to your mi- 
litary operations 

" It is with the hfeheft fetisfaftion 
an i gratitude we hear the arfeftionate 
cecV :tion of the father of his people, 
-..licit when the un.'.appy and deluded 
multit le. againft whom this force lhall 
be ,iin.£ted, fhall I ;jnie fenfible of 
thJr error, your Majefty will he ready 
to receive the mitLd with tendemefs 
anJ mercy; and vour .Majefty's gracious 
o.n.nurication, of y<>m intentions to 
give authority to certain peribns on the 
foot, to grant gc lcval and particular 
pardons and indemnities, in inch man- 
ner, a.ij to fuch perfons as they 
lhall think fit, and to receive the fub- 
mifion of any province or colony which 
may be difpofed to return to its alle- 
giance, demands our warmed acknow- 
L.ijt-ments, and we fhall be ready to 
give our concurrence to fuch meafnres 
as may beft contribute to carry your 
Majefty's wiie and humane intentions 
into execution. 

" E.very motive and every intereft, 
that can animate the hearts of loyal 
fulijefts, call upon your faithful Com- 
jnons to grant to your MajeTty fuch 
ltipplie-s as the circumftan.ces and ex- 
igency of affairs may require ; and be- 
ing fully convinced that the fecurity of 
'•thofe advantages which are derived to 
the commerce, the manufactures, and 
the navigation of your Majefty's king- 
doms, from the American colonies, 
mull ever depend on their being held 
i:; that due fubordination to the legi- 
flatm-e of Great Britain, in which the 
constitution has placed, we mould be 
wi.niiii.; in the dury ^vhich we to 
our coaitituents, ourielvcs, and our pof- 
tev'ty, if we did nqt engage with our 
lives an'd fortunes to fupport this great 
and- important caijfe*, in which the 
rights of your Majefty's crown, and the 
inietciti of your people are fo effec- 
tually concerned; and we hope and 
truft, that we lhall, by the bkffing of 
God, pu; lac.i itrcngth and force into 
your Majefty's hands, as may loon de- 
feat and fuppiefs this rebellion, and 
enable your iVlajefty to accomplifh your 
gracious with of rc-eftabli(hing order, 
tranquillity, and happinefs, through all 
the pat; of yc.i' united empire." 
To which his Majefty was pleafcd to 

return the follo*ifl£ molt gracious 

anlwer : 

" Gentlemen, 

" I return you my hearty thanks for 
this loyal and dutiful addrefs. I pro- 
mife myfelf the rooft happy confer 
quences; from the dutiful and affection- 
ate allurances of the fupport of my 
faithful Commons on this great and im- 
portant conjuncture ; and I have a firm 
confidence, that by the blefllng of God, 
and thejuftice of the caule, and by the 
alEilance of my parliament, I fhall be 
enabled to fuppiefs this dangerous re- 
bellion, and to attain the mod de- 
fireable end of reltoring my fubjects in 
America to the free and happy condi- 
tion, and to the peace and profperity 
which they enjoyed in their constitu- 
tional dependence, before the breaking 
out of thefe unhappy diforders. 


General SCHl' Y L E R's account of 

his expedition, to Tryon C'.xnty. 

Sir, Albany^ Jan. 35", 1776. 

ON the evening of the twenty-firit, I 
returned from Tryon county ; the 
following is a narrative of that little ex- 

A$ I had no troops here to carry into 
execution the refolutions ot theCongrefs, 
I was under the neceflity of communi- 
cating my bufinefs to the Sub Commit- 
tee of this county ; which I did, having 
previoully administered an oath of fecre- 
cy. Whilft the Committee were devif- 
ing the means to collect a body of men 
for this fervice, and much puzzled what 
reafons to give for doing it, the letter 
and affidavit from Tryon county (copies 
of which I had the honour to tianfmit 
you by my laft expiefs) came to hand, 
and the accounts contained in them were 
made the oftenfible reafons for railing 
the militia. Although I thought two or 
three hundred men, with the Tryon 
county Whigs, fufficient to complete my 
bufinefs, yet I readily confented that 
feven hundred mould be called upon, at 
once to difcourage the Tories in other 
pa,rts of the country, and to give confi- 
dence to the Whigs in all parts ; but 
fuch was the zeal and alacrity of the 
people, that although the weather wa« 
cold in the extreme, it was impollible to 
pre-cnt their coming up, which they 
did in fuch numbers, that by the time I 
reached Caghnawaga, I l^ad very near, 
|f not quite, three thoufind men, in- 
cluding nine hundred of the Try-cm 
county militia- 

On Tuefday the fixteenth, I marched 
to Schenectady, an**, on the evening of 
that day, a deputation from the Mo- 
hawk Indians met us, and delivered me 


the following fpeech, in a very haughty 
tone : 

" We intended to have gone down to 
Albany, in order to fpeak to you, but 
thank God that he has given us an op- 
portunity to meet you here, as we have 
feme matters tocommunicatetoyou.'' — 
To which I gave the following anfwer. — 
" I am very glad to fee you here, and I 
(hall be glad to hear what the brothers 
have to lav, as my ears are always open 
to them." — Whe««upon Abraham pro- 
ceeded as follows : — " Brothers, you 
lately fent to our place four men, who 

arrived to us laft Sunday morning. 

They told us they were lent up to us by 
you, to inform us of thofe military pre- 
parations, which were making down in 
this quarter.' By them you let us know 
that you thought it not prudent to fend 
armed men amongft us, without previ- 
oufly notifying us. Likewife, Brothers, 
your meflengers informed us of the rea- 
fons of your coming in this manner. 
You informed us that you had heard 
that there were a number of men, embo- 
died at Sir John's, about Johnftowu ; 
you told us likewife, that as foon as 
they had completed their body, they in- 
tended to deftroy the fettlements up and 
down the river. You, informed us that 
you were coming up, to inquire into the 
truth of the report, and who it was that 
gave out commiilions, and what were 
their defigns. 

" At the fame time you allured us, 
that no harm was intended againft us, 
the Six Nations, as we had laft fummer 
publicly engaged that we would take no 
part againft you in your difpute with the 
great King, over the great water. 

" Brothers, you told us that you 
would come to fearch into the truth of 
the report, and you aflured us alio, that 
you would not be the firft aggreflbr, and 
that it (hould be their own fault, if any 
blood was fpilt. 

" You told us that you would ac- 
quaint the Lower Caftle firft of the de- 
fign, that they mould fend up to the 
Upper Caftle, and they to the Oneida, 
and then to the Onondaga, and fo thro' 
the whole Six Natious. 

" Brothers we thanked your meflen- 
gers for the fpeech delivered to us, and 
we would eonfiderof it forfome time, to 
return them an anfwer. Accordingly, 
brothers, a fmall number of us, who 
take care of the news, met in council ou 
this occafion . 

" We thanked our meflengers for 
informing us firft of your defigns. We 
ibid we know the agreement which was 


_entered into with the whole Twelve Un- 
ited Colonies. At that meeting, you re- 
member it was agreed to remove ail ob- 
ftacles out of the way of the path of 
peace, to keep it open, that wc might 
pafs and repals without being annoyed. 

" Brothers, you told us that you 
came to inquire into the truth of the re- 
port, which might be done by four or 
fix, without any danger in making the 

" We propofed your fending up fix 
perfons to inquire into the truth ot this 
matter, as it would be a lhame to inter- 
rupt them, as no perfon would be fo 
mean as to give them any obfl ruction. 

" As for fending your belt forward, 
we thought to retain it, until we had 
heard whether our propofal had been ac- 
cepted or no. — 

" And we delire that you would con- 
sider of this matter, aud keep your 
troops at home, and let us know your 
mind ; aud if, after confidering of our 
propofals, you do not agree to them, 
that you will then let us know what you 
intend to do. 

" The, likewife lent word to you, 
that u/hen they had heard from you, 
whether you accepted of our propofals, 
that we would then do as you defire in 
fending up the news. 

" Brothers, we expefted an anfwer 
to our propofals, but none arrived untill 
we were informed, by a woman who re- 
turned from Albany, that thofe prepa- 
rations were actually making, and that 
troops were actually marching in the 
c. untry. We then, brothers, took the 
matter into con fi deration, and deter- 
mined it was beft for a party to meet 
you, and you fee us this day, brothers, 
arrived. We come, biothers, to beg of 
you that you take good care and pru- 
dence of what you are going about. We 
beg of you, brothers, to remember t'ie 
engagement which was made with the 
Twelve Unite-d golonies at our interview 
laft fummer, as we then engaged to o- 
pen the path of peace, and to keep it 
undefilcd from blood ; at the fame time 
fomething of a.different nature made its 
appearance. You aflured us, brotheis, 
that if any were found in our neighbour- 
hood inimical to us, that you would o„- 
fider them as enemies. The Six Nations 
then fuppofed that the fon of Sir Willi- 
am was pointed at by that exprelfion. 
We then defiled particularly, that, he 
might not be injured, as it was not in 
his power to injure the caufe ; and that 
therefore he might not be motelled. 
The oix Nations then faid they would 




not concern themfelves with your opera- 
tions in other parts, but particularly de- 
fired that this path might be free from 

" And now, brothers, we repeat it 
again ; we beg of \ ou to take good care, 
And not to fpill any blood in this path, 
and the more efpecially, brothers, as it 
is as but of this day that the Six Na- 
tions had fo agreeable an interview « ith 
the Colonies, and our Chiefs are now 
hunting in the woods, and not dreaming 
that there is any- profpedt that this path 
is, or will be, defiled with blood. 

" We informed you, brothers, that 
we had heard, of a woman, that you 
was advancing, and that you had can- 
non ; we then took it into confidera- 
tion ; we thought it itrange that cannon 
lhould be brought into the country, as 
the Twelve United Colonies had fo late- 
ly opened the path of peace. As you 
will remember that this path was open- 
ed laft fpring, and the Six Nations a- 
greed to keep it open, we then thought 
what could influence the Twelve United 
Colonies to open this path, and from 
the prefent appearance it is * . if with a 
iefign that the cannon lhould pafs free 
from allobftruction. 

'J Brothers, attend! It was your re- 
quell, and a matter agreed upon by the 
Twelve United Colonies, that we lhould 
mind nothing but peace ; therefore, 
brothers, as we mean to obferve that a- 
greement, we have exprefled ourfelvcs as 
above; and as brothers, we mind no- 
thing but peace, we look upon ourfelves 
as mediators between the two parties. 
Therefore, brothers, as your mefiengers 
declared that you would not be the ng- 
grefTbrs, we informed Sir John of this, 
and earnealy begged of him not to be 
the aegreflbr, or the means of (bedding 
blood, and at the fame time allured him 
that if we found he fhould be the aggref- 
for, we would not pay any farther at- 
tention to him, and likewife told them 
that if our brothers of the United Colo- 
nies were the aggreflbrs, that we lhould 
treat them in the lame manner. 

'■ This is what we t»ld Sir John, as 
we look upon ourfelves to be mediators 
between both parties, and as we have 
faid before, deliicd him not to be the ag- 

" To which Sir John replied, that 
we k now his difpofition very well, and 
that he had no mind to be the aggrefliir. 
He allured us that he would not be the 
aggrefTor, but if the people came up to 
take away b,is life, he would do as well 
as he couid, as the law of nature juftiried 
cTery perfon to ftand ia hii own defence. 

" According to the news we have 
heard, it is as though .-ir John would 
lhut up the path of peace in that quarter, 
but that U impoffible he lhould do it, as 
he has but a meer handful of friends. 
But, brothers, if this company who are 
now palling by, lhould go up, and any 
thing bad lhould happen, we fhall look 
on you as Ihutting up the path. 

" It has been reprcfented to you, 
brothers, that it feems that Sir fohn is 
making military preparations, and that 
he is making a fort round his houfe ; 
but, brothers, as we live fo near him, 
we fhould certainly know it it any thing 
of that nature lhould be done, efpeeially 
as we go there fo frequently on account 
of our father the minifter, who fome- 
times performs divine firvice at that 
place. We have never feen any hoftile 
preparations made there, there is no 
cannon nor any thing of that kind, and 
that all things remained in the fame fitu- 
ation it was in the lifetime of Sir Wil- 

" Brothers, we would not conceal a- 
ny thing from you, it would not be 
right to ufe deceit, neither do we mean 
to do it ; the minds of our Counfeilors 
are very much grieved, and aggrieved at 
that part of the difpofition of thofe 
whom we may call our warriors, as there 
are fome among us of different minds, 
as there are among ycu. — Brothers, our 
Counfeilors remembering the covenant 
we laft fummer made with our brethren 
the Twelve Colonies, have all along 
ihongly urged our warriors to peace, 
and have checked them when a contrary 
difpofition appeared. Our minds are ve- 
ry much grieved to find any of our war- 
riors of a different fentiment. We have 
hitherto been able to reftrain them, and 
hope (till to be able to do it, for matters 
are not now carried to extremity, but if 
they are, our warriors will not be re- 
strained, becaufe they will think them- 
felves deceived If this military force 
comes into the country. 

" We have declared to you, brothers, 
that we would not deceive, and that «e 
maan to declare our minds to you openly 
and freely. We the Sachems have all a- 
long inculcated to the warriors, fenti- 
ments of peace, and they have hitherto 
been obedient to us, though there have 
been frequent rumours that they fhculd 
bedifturbed, yet we have hitherto been 
able to calm their minds. But row, 
brothers, fo large a party coming, a- 
larms the minds of our warriors. 

" They are determined, brothers, .to 
go, and be prefent at your interview 



%ith Sir John, and determined to fee 
and hear every thing that Ihould be there 
t ran fitted ; and if it (hall then appear 
that this partv (hall pulh matters to ex- 
tremes, we then cannot be accountable 
for any thing that may happen. But as 
for us, brotners, the counfellors are ful- 
ly determined ever to perfevere in the 
path of peace. 

" Brothers, attend ! — Though I have 
finifhed what I had purpofed to fay, yet 
I will add one thing more, When the 
news of your approach arrived at our 
town, it caufed great confufion, fome 
were ready to take to their arms, obfer- 
ving that thofe reports refpefling the 
unfriendly difpofition of the colonies 
were now verified. I begged of them, 
brothers, to pofTcfs their minds in peace 
for a few days. I told them that I roy- 
felf would go to Albany and inquire in- 
to the-truth of the matter. I was fo 
confcious of my own innocency, that no 
hoftile appearance could deter me, how- 
ever formidable. I therefore defired them 
to (it ftill until my return, which might 
be in two days, if I went to Albany ; 
this, brothers, is the prefent fituation 
of our people, they are waiting to fee 
what news I bring. 

" Brothers, when I made this requeft 
to the warriors, that they mould fit ftill 
till my return, they told me that they 
would, which they are now in expecta- 
tion of, and will do nothing till I get 
back. But, brothers, after my return I 
will repeat to them the fpeech you will 
now make to me, and if any of our peo- 
ple Ihould ftill perfift to be prefent at 
your interview with Sir John, we hope, 
brethren, you will not think hard of us 
as counfellors, as it is not in our powers 
to rule them as we pleafe. If they mould 
go, and if any thing evil Ihould happen, 
we beg to know, brothers, what treat- 
ment we may expert who remain at 
home in peace. 

" Brothers, this is all what we have 
to fay, this is the bufinefs which has 
brought us down, and we now expeft an 
anlwer to carry home to our people." 

To which I delivered the following . 
anfwer, which it was eafy to be perceiv- 
ed had the defired efTeft. 

" Brothers of the Mohawk nation, 
" "VY/"E, the Commiffionersappoint» 
V * ed by the Congrefs, and your 
Brothers of Albany and Scheneflady, 
have paid great attention to the fpeech 
you have delivered to us , we now defire 
you to open your ears, and attentively 
Men to what we have to fay in anfwer. 


" Brothers, it pleafed us to hear yoi* 
declare, that you would fpeak your 
minds freely ; we allure you that w« 
(hall do the fame, and hide nothing front 
you of what is in our thoughts. 

" Brothers, we were in hopes that 
the meflage which we fent to you, by 
Mr. Bleeker, would have eafed your 
minds, and have convinced you, that 
we had no hoftile intentions againft you 
or any other Indians, for if we had, we 
would not have fent you that meflage, 
neither would we have fupplied you with 
powder, as we did laft fummer, and a- 
gain the other day. 

" Brothers, we are extremely forry 
that you have not complied with our re- 
queft, to fend the fpeech which we fent 
you by Mr. Bleeker to the Six Nations, 
in the manner which we required, 

" Brothers, you told me that five of 
fix men would have been fufficient t» 
have gone to John flown, and to hav« 
inquired what was tranfa&ing there, 
and that thefe people would have been 
in no danger, as it would have been a 
fhame to have interrupted them. We 
acknowledge, Brothers, that it would 
have been a (hanie if we had fent them, 
and they had been interrupted ; but we 
have full proofs that many people in 
Johnftown, and the neighbourhood there- 
of, have for a confiderable time part 
made preparations to carry into execu- 
tion the wicked defigns of the King's e- 
vil counfellors. 

" Brothers, it is very true that lad 
fummer the United Colonies promifeA 
that the path to the Indian country 
fhould be kept open. They 3gain repeat 
that promife : and although it is by the 
fpecial order of the Congrefs, that this 
body of troops are now marching up, 
yet it is not to Ihut the path, but to 
keep it open, and prevent the people in 
and about Johnftown from cutting off 
the communication between us and our 
brethren of the Six Nations, and our o- 
ther brethren living upon the river. 

" Brothers, although we have before 
obferved that the people, living in and 
about Johnftown, are makiug hoftile 
preparations againft us, yet we will not 
(lied a drop of their blood, unlefs they 
refufe to come to an agreement by which 
we may be fafe, or unlefs they oppcVe us 
with arms. We do not mean, that any 
of our warriors Ihould iet their foot on 
any of the lands that you poflefs, or 
that of the Six Nations, unlefs our ene- 
mies Ihould take (belter there, for thofe 
we are refolved to follow wherever they 
go. We again 'repeat, that we have no 




quarrel with you, and we do expect that 
you will not interfere in this family con- 
tell, but ftand by as indifferent iptifta- 
tors, agreeable to the encouragement of 
the Six Nations made to us laft rummer 
a,t their own requeft. 

" Brothers, we allured you laft fum- 
mer, that as we had no quarrel with a- 
ny Indians, we would not touch a hair 
of their heads; yet when our warriors 
were at St. John's, they were attacked 
by Indians; two of your tribe, and fome 
others, were killed. You have never 
blamed us for it, becaufe you well knew 
that, as our lives are dear to us, we had 
a right to kill any man who atterrpts to 
kill us ; you ought therefore not to be 
furprifed if we take every precaution to 
prevent being deltroyed by the friends of 
the King's evil counsellors. 

" Brothers, in a little time we may 
be called upon to go and fight again ft 
our enemies to the eaftward, who are 
employed by the King's evil counfellors, 
and can you think it prudent that we 
Ihould leave a fet of people, who are our 
enemies, in any part of the country, in 
Such a Situation as to be able to deftroy 
our wives and children, and burn our 
houfes in our abSence ? Wojild you leave 
your wives and children in fuch a Situa- 
tion ? The wifdom by which you have 
conducted your affairs, convinces us chat 
you v» ould not ; and yet So cautious are 
we that no blood may be (hed, that we 
lhall fend a letter to Sir John, inviting 
him to meet us on the road, between 
this place and his houfe, which if he 
does, we make no doubt but every thing 
will be fettled in an amicable manner. 
And, that he may be under no appre- 
hcnfions, we do now allure you, that if 
we do not come to an agreement, he 
will be permitted fafely to return to hi; 
own houfe. 

" Brothers, we thank you that you 
have concealed nothing from us, and we 
allure you that we fcorn deceit as much 
as you do, and therefore we lhall now 
Speak our ' minds freely on what you, 
have Said refpecting the conduct which 
your warriors mean to hold. We have 
no objections, nay, we wilh that you 
and they (hould be preSent to hear what 
we (hall propoSe to Sir John, and the 
people in and about Johnftown, who are 
our enemies. Jlut we beg of you to tell 
your warriors, that although we have no 
quarrel with them, yet if we Ihould be 
under the difagreeable tieceflity of fight- 
ing with our enemies, and your warriors 
(hould join them and fight againft us, 
that we will do as we ui.l at St. John's 
and repel force by force. 

" Brothers, you have afked us if your 
warriors Ihould go, and if any thing evil 
Ihould happen, what treatment you may 
expect who remain at home in peace. 

" Brothers, in the treaty htld at Al- 
bany, laft iummcr, you and your war- 
riors were prelent, and you and they 
jointly promiled to remain neuter, and 
not to interfere in this quarrel; Ihould 
your waniors therefore now take up 
armsagainft us, we muft confider it as a 
breach of the treaty, fo far as it reflects 
the lower Mohawk caftle, of which 
breach we lhall complain to our bre- 
thren the other nations ; and, at the 
Same time lay the matter before our 
Great Council, at Philadelphia, whole 
determination thereupon will be our fu- 
ture guide. 

" Brothers, we are furprifed that the 
lead doubt Ihould remain oh your minds, 
with refpect to our friendly intentions 
towards you, after the many inftances 
we have given you of our love and friend- 
fliip. But we muft impute it to the 
wicked insinuations of our mutual ene- 
mies, who wilh for nothing fo much as 
to fee the ancient covenant, which has 
fo long ft) b fitted between us, broke. 

" Brothers, you have obferved that 
you would pay no regard to that party 
that Ihould be the firft aggreflbr. We 
cannot be the aggreflbrs, for if our ene- 
mies in and about Johnftown had had no 
evil intentions againft us, we Ihould ne- 
ver have come thus far with an ar- 
my. Whoever takes up arms againft an- 
other, although he has not yet ftruck, 
muft be confidered as the aggreflbr, and 
not he who tries to prevent the blow. 

" Brothers, we have now freely and 
fully difclofed to you our minds. We 
hope you will remember what we have 
faid, and repeat it to your brother coun- 
fellors and warriors, and, left you Ihould 
not be able to recollect every part of this 
fpeech, you may have your brothers 
Karaghquadirhon ' and Tezederonderon. 
to attend you, if it be agreeable to you. 

" Brothers, your women have Sent 
us a belt. We beg you to aflure them of 
our regard, and to intreat them to pre- 
vent your waniors from doing any 
thing that would have the leaft tendency 
to incur our refentment, or interrupt 
that harmony which we wilh may fublift 
to the end of time." 

To this they made the following (hort 
reply : 

* Dean and Blether, Interpreters. 

" Brothers. 


the Great Man, 

'" Brother Schuyler 
attend ! 

"WE have this evening heard what 
you have to fay, and we are glad of it 
and thank you for it. 

*' Every thing that has been faid to us 
brother, has been perfectly agreeable tous. 
" I Shall not attempt, brother, to 
make a particular reply to every thing 
that has been faid to us ; indeed it would 
not be proper ar this time. 

" We are very glad, brother, that 
you have determined to write to Sir 
John, requeuing an interview, with him, 
in hopes of an amicable agreement. 

" Brother, you mention, that it 
would be agreeable to you that the war- 
riors and counsellors, or Sachems, mould 

" Brother, we, the Sachems, will at- 
tend, even though we mould do it at the 
rifque of our lives. 

" Brother, we (hould be glad if you 
would inform us of the time and place 
Of your intervic x with Sir John. You 
likewife told us, that if it was agreeable 
to us that you r interpreters (hould at- 
tend, to recapitulate the Speech, you have 
made, which likewife is agreeable to us : 
and we dcfire that they may go with us,- 
for by that means all miflakes may be 

" Brother, you may depend on it that 
we will ufe ourutmoft influence with our 
warriors, to calm their minds. 

" You may depend on it likewife, 
that our fillers will ufe their utmoft in- 
fluence for the fame purpofe." 

I then allured them again, that as we 
had no hoftilc intentions, they might 
reft allured that nothing difagreeable 
would happen to them, and that, if they 
attented at Johnftown as friends, they 
would receive the protection due to them 
as mediators, after which they returned. 
Ea:k',y on Wednefday.the 17th, I march- 
ed, having previoufly fent a letter to Sir 
John Johnfon, of which the following is 
a copy : 

ScheneBady, January, 16, 1776. 
" Sir, 
" Information having been received 
that defigns of the moll dangerous ten- 
dency to the rights, liberties, properties, 
and even lives of thofe of his Majefty's 
faithful Subjects in America, who are op- 
pofcd to the unconstitutional meafures 
of his Miniftry, have been formed in 
part of the county of Tryon, 1 am there- 
fore ordered to march a body of men in- 
to that county, to carry into execution 
certain refolutions of my Superiors, and 
to contravene thefe dangerous defigns. 
Vol. II. 


" Influenced, Sir, by motives of hu- 
manity, I w (h to comply with my or- 
ders, in a manner the mod peaceable, 
that no blood may be filed. I therefore 
requeft that you will pleafe to meet me 
to-morrow at any place on my way to 
Johnftown, to which I propofe then to 
march. For which purpofe I do hereby 
give you my word and honour, that you, 
and fuch perfons as you may choofe 
Ihould attend you, (hall pais late and. 
unmolefted to the place where you may 
meet me, and from thence back to th« 
place of your abode. 

" P-utgert Bleecker, and Henry Glenn, 
Efquires, are the bearers hereof, gentle- 
men who are entitled to your beft atten- 
tion, which I dare fay they will experi- 
ence, and by whom I expect you will fa- 
vour me with an anfwer to this letter. 

" You will pleafe to aflure Lady John- 
fon, that whatever may be the refult of 
what is now in agitation, (he may reft 
perfectly fatisficd that no indignity will 
be offered her. I am, Sir, your humble 
fervant, PH. SCHUYLER. 

" To Sir John Johnfon, Baronet." 
He accordingly met me about fixteen 
miles beyond Schenectady, accompanied 
by fome of the leading Scotchmen, and 
two or three others, when I delivered 
him thefollowing terms : 
Terms offered by the Honourable Phi- 
lip Schuyler, Efq; Major-General in 
the army of the Thirteen United Co-* 
lonies, and commanding in the New- 
York department, to Sir John John- 
fon, Baronet, and all fuch other per- 
fons in the county of Tryon, as hav*. 
evinced their intentions of Supporting 
his Majefty's Miniftry to cany into 
execution the unconltitutional mea- • 
fures of which the Americans fo juftly 
complain, and to prevent which they 
have Leen drawn to the dreadful ne- 
ceflity of having recourfe to arms. 
Firft, Tliat Sir John Johnfon (hall, 
upon his word and honour, immediately 
deliver up all cannon, armsand military 
(lores of what kind Soever, which may 
be in his own pofTtffion, or which h« 
has caufed to be delivered into the pof- 
Seffion of any psrfons whatsoever, either 
directly or indirectly, or that, to his 
knowledge, may be concealed in any 
part of the faid county ; that he (hall 
diftinguifh all fuch military (lores, of 
what kind Soever, as belong to the 
crown, or were furnifhed with the defign 
of arming the Indians, or the inhabi- 
tants of Tryon county, from thofe which 
may be private property ; in order that 
a proper inventory may be taken of the 
N lad 


laft articles, that the fame may be re- tal Congrefs, doth promife and engage! 
ftored; or the value of them refunded that neither Sir John Johnfon, nor any 
when this unhappy conteft ftiall be over, of thofe people, (hall be molefted by any 
Secondly, General Schuyler, out of of the other inhabitants of thefaid coun- 
perfonal refpect to Sir John, and from a ty, or by any of the inhabitants of the 

regard to his rank, contents that Sir 
John (hall retain for his own ufe, a com- 
plete fet of armour, and as much powder 
as may be fufficient for his domeftic pur- 

Thirdly, That Sir John Johnfon (hall 
remain upon his parole of honour in any 
part ofTryon county, which he may 
choofe, to t'ne eaftward of the diftrict of 
unlefs it (hould appear neceflary 
to the Honourable Continental Congrefs 
to remove him to fome other pa^t of this 
or any other Colony ; in which cafe he is 
immediately to comply with fuch orders 
as they may think proper to give for 
that purpofe. 

Fourthly, That the Scotch inhabitants 
of the faid county (hall, without any 
kind of exception, immediately deliver 
up all arms in their pofleflion, of what 
kind foever they may be ; and that they 
ftiall each folemnly promife, that they 
will not at any time hereafter, during 
the continuance of this unhappy conteft, 
take up arms without the^jermiffion of 
the Continental Congrefs, or of their ge- 
neral officers ; and for the more faithful 
performance of this article, the General 
infifts, that they (hall immediately deli- 
ver up to him fix hoftages of his own 

Fifthly, That fuch of the other Inha- 
bitants ofTryon county, as have avowed 
themfelvcs averfe to the meafures of the 
United Co'onies, (hall alfo deliver up 
their arms, of what kind foever they may 
be, and enter into the likeengagement as 
is flipulatad in the preceding article, 
both with refpect to their future conduct 
and the number of hoftages. 

Sixthly, That all blankets, (hrouds, 
and other Indian articles belonging to 
the crown, and intended as prefents to 
the Indians, (hall be delivered up to a 
CommiiTary appointed by General Schuy- 
ler, in the prei'ence of three or more of 
the Mohawk Chiefs, in order that the 
fame miy de difperfed amongft the In- 
dians, for the purpofe of cementing the 
ancient friertdlhip between them and 
their brethren of the United Colonies, 
for which fole purpofe they ought to 
have been furnilhed. 

Seventhly, [f Sir John Johnfon, and 
the people referred to in the aforegoing 
articles, (hall juftly abide by, and per- 
form what is thereby required of them, 
the General, in behalf of the Coritinen- 

but that, on the contrary they will be 
protected in the quiet and peaceable en- 
joyment of their property, the fole in- 
tent of this treaty being to prevent the 
horrid effects of a civil and inteftine war 
betwixt thofe who ought to be brethren. 
That all the arms which (hall be deliver- 
ed up in confequence of the preceding 
articles, (hall be valued by fworn apprais- 
ers. That if the Continental Congref9 
(hould have occafion for them, they may 
be taken. If not, they will be delivered 
to the refpective proprietors, when this 
unhappy conteft (hall be at an end. 

He allured me, that the Indians would 
fupport him, and that fome were already 
at Johnfon hall for that purpofe, and 
others on their way down. 

In return I told him, that although 
averfe to (hedding any blood, yet if he 
refilled, that force would be oppofed to 
force without distinction,, and that the 
confequences would be of the molt 
ferious nature, unlefs he complied with 
my requifitions. He begged time to 
anfwer until next evening, to which I 

About an hour after he had left me, 
Abraham, and another of the Mohawks, 
called upon me. I acquainted him of 
the information I had received from 
Sir John, which he denied to be true, 
giving me aiTurances that the Mohawks 
interfere nootherways than as mediators; 
I anfwered, that I hoped they would 
not, but that if they did, I (hould fure- 
ly not hefitate one moment to deftroy 
all that (hould appear up in arms a- 
gainft us. On Thurfday the 18th, I 
approached to within four miles of 
Johnftown, and about 
ceived the 'following 

" Terms propofed by Sir John John- 
fon, Bart, and the people of Kingf- 
borough, and the adjacent neighbour- 
hood, to the Hon. Philip Schuyler, 
Efq; Major General in the army of 
the Thirteen United, Colonies, and 
commanding in the New-York depart- 

" Firft, That Sir John Johnfon, and 
the reft of the gentlemen expect, that 
all fuch arms of every kind as their own 
property, may remain in their pofleflion, 
all the other arms (hall be delivered up 
to fuch perfon or perfons as may be ap- 

fix o'clock, re- 
anfwer to my 



pointed for that purpofe. As to mili- 
tary (tores belonging to the crown, Sir 
John has not any. 

" Secondly, Anfwered in the firft. 

" Thirdly, Sir John- experts, that he 
will not be confined to any particular 
county, but be at liberty to go where 
he pleafcs. 

" Fourthly, The Scotch inhabitants 
will deliver up their arms of what kind 
foever they may be; and they will each 
folemnly promife, that they will not, 
at any time hereafter, during the conti- 
nuance of this unhappy conteft, take 
up arms, without the permiflion of the 
Continental Congrefs, or of their ge- 
neral officers. Hoftages they are not in 
a capacity to give, no one man having 
the command over another, or power 
fufficient to deliver fuch: therefore this 
article to be pafled from, or the whole 
included. Women and children to be 
required, a requisition fo inhuman, 
as we hope the General will difpenfe 

" Fifthly, Anfwered in the Fourth. 

" Sixthly, Sir John has not any 
blankets, Ihrouds, or other prefents in- 
tended for the Indians. 

" Seventhly* If the above propofals 
are agreed to and figned by the General, 
Sir John and the people referred to, 
will rely on the aflurances of protection 
given by the General. 

Johnfon-hall, Jan. 18, 1776 
To the Hon. Philip Schuyler, Efq; 
Major General. 

To which I returned the following 

Cagnuage, Jan. 18, eight o'clock, P, M. 
" Gentlemen, 

" MefTrs. Adams and M'Donel have 
delivered me your anfwer to my propo- 
fals of yefterday's date. The leaft at- 
tention to the articles I offered, when 
compared with yours, rhufl convince 
you, that you omitted replies to feveral 
of them, confequently what you have 
fent me is very imperfect, and alfo un- 
fatisfactory. I wave pointing out fome 
inconfiftences in your propofals, as the 
whole are exceptionable, excepting the 

" I mult therefore obey my orders, 
and again repeat, that in the execution 
of them, I (hall ftrictly abide by the 
laws of humanity, at the feme time af- 
furing you, that if the leaft refiftance 
is made, I will not anfwer for the con- 

sequences, which may be of a nature 
the molt dreadful. 

If Lady Johnfon is at Johnfbn-hall, I 
wifh (he would retire, and therefore en- 
clofe a pafTport, as I (hall march my 
troops to that place without delay. 

" You may, however, have time to 
re.onfider the mattej ; and for that 
purpofe, I give you until twelve o'clock 
this night, after which I (hall receive 
no propofals, and I have lent ,you 
Mr. Robert Yates, Mr. Glen, and Mr. 
Duer, to receive the ultimate propofals 
you have to make. This condefcenfion 
I make from no other motive than to 
prevent the effufion of blood, (b far as 
it may be effected without rifking the 
fafety of the county, or being guilty 
of a breach of the pofitive orders I 
have received from the Hon. Continental 
Congrefs. — I am gentlemen, with due 
refpect, your humble fervant, 


To Sir John Johnfon, and 
Mr. Allen M'Donell. 

Immediately after I had fent this a- 
way, the Sachems, and all the warriors 
of the lower Mohawk town, and fome 
from the upper called upon me, and 
informed me, that Sir John Johnfon had 
related to them the contents of the 
terms I had offered to him and his af- 
fociates; that Sir John declared he only 
meant to guard himfelf from any in- 
fult that might be offered by riotous 
people ; that he had no unfriendly in- 
tentions againft the country, and beg- 
ged that I would accept of the terms 
he had offered. In reply I. explained 
my propofals, and Sir John's anfwer ; 
pointed out the impropriety of doling 
with him on the conditions he wanted, 
and told them that I had given him 
until twelve o'clock to comply, after 
which I fhould take fuch meafures as 
would force him, and whoever affifted 
him to a compliance. They were con- 
tented with the reafons I gave, but 
begged, that if his anfwer was not 
fatisfactory, that I would give him un- 
til four o'clock in the morning, that 
they might have time to go and (hake 
his head, (as they expreffed it,} and 
bring him to his fenfes ; and they beg- 
ged it as a favour to be charged to 
them, that I would not remove hflh 
out of the county ; they apologised 
for the threats of their warriors, faid 
that they were not all prefent at the 
treaty at Albany, but that now they 
were all here, and declared that they 
would never take arms againft us. 
N I paid 



I paid them a compliment on their 
peaceable intentions, and informed 
them, that although Sir John's conduit 
was extremely obnoxious, and that we 
fllould bejuftified m making him a clofe 
prifoaer, ) et I would grant their requeft 
for two realons, firft to (hew our love 
and affection to them, and to convince 
them that they could obtain that by 
afking it a a favour, which they could 
not by threatening; fecondly, that by 
leaving of him they might by their ad- 
vice and example, teach him to alter 
his conduit, 

£t twelve, the followinganfwer from 
Sir John came to hand : 
" Anfwers to the terms propofed by 
the Hon. Philip Schuyler, Efq; Ma- 
jor-General in the army of the Thir- 
teen United Colonies, and command- 
ing in the New-York department, to 
Sir John Johnfon, Baronet, the in- 
habitants of Kingfborough, and the 
neighbourhood adjacent. 
" Firft and fecond articles agreed 
Jo, except a few family arms. 

" Third, Sir John Johnfon has given 
his parole of honour, not to take up 
»rms againft America, and conceiviug 
th« defijrn of this military operation, 
to be with no other view, than that 
of removing of the jraloiifies of which 
his countrymen are unhappily and un- 
juftly inipired with- againft him, can means think of fubmitting to 
to this article in its full latitude, though 
for the fake of preferving peace and 
removing any fufpicions of undue influ- 
ence, he confents not to go to the weft- 
ward of the German flats, and Kingf- 
land ciiftricts ; to every other part of 
thfc Continent to the fouthward of thi^ 
ccunty, he expects the priviledge of 

" Fourth, Agreed to, except to that 
part of the article, which refpeets the 
giving hoftages. After the Scotch in- 
habitants, have furrendered their arms, 
the Gcqeral may take any fix prifon- 
ers amongft them as he choofes, 
without reliftance. They expect, how- 
ever, that the prifoners taken, will be 
jna-'ntained agreeable to their refpettive 
rank, and that they may have the pri- 
vilege of going to any part of the pro- 
vinces -of Ne\»-Jcrfey or Pennfylvania, 
■which the General, or the Continental 
Cojijrefs ir.ay appoint. They likewife 
expect, from the General's humanity, 
that pioviGon will be made for the 
maintenance of the prifoners wives and 
ehildren, agreeable to their refpective 
fituatioa is life. Yet, for the iake of 

promoting the harmony of the country, 
they will not break oft" this treaty mere- 
ly on that account, provided the Gene- 
ral thinks he cannot exert a difcre- 
tionary power in this, in which 
cafe they rely upon the General's in- 
fluence, with the Continental Congrefs- 
who, they cannot perfuade themfelvei 
themfelves, will be inattentive to the 
to the voice of humanity, or to the 
feelings of parents, who may be torn 
from their families. Thofe, to whofe 
lot it may fall to be taken prifoners, 
it is expected they will be allowed a 
few days to fettle their bufinefs, and 
the gentlemen to wear their fide arms. 
" Fifth, Neither Sir John Johnfon, 
or the Scotch gentlemen can make any 
engagement for any other perfons than 
thofe over whom they may have influ- 
ence. Neither can they pofGbly know 
the names of all fuch perjpns who have 
fliewn themfelves averf^Io the meafures 
of the United Colonies. They give 
their word and honour, that fo far as 
depends on them, the inhabitants (hall 
give up their arms, and enter into the 
like engagement with the Scotch in- 
habitants. The Genera4#ias it more in 
his power to difcoveifl thofe who arc 
obnoxious, and to make as many as 
he pleafes prifoners ; neither (hail they 
adopt the quarrel of any fuch perfon 
as their own. 

" Sixth. Sir John gives' his word and 
honour, that he' has no blankets, 
fhrouds, or other prefents belonging to 
the crown, intended for the Indians, 
and therefore this requifition cannot be 
complied with. 

" Seventh, If the aboye propofale 
are agreed to, and figned by the Ge- 
neral, Sir John and the people referred 
to, will rely on the afTurances of pro- 
tection given by the General. But as 
it will be impoflible for the arms to be 
collected till Saturday next at twelve 
o'clock, alWjthe men, referred to in 
the above atTOlts, will be then paraded 
in Johnftown, and ground their arms in 
the prefence of fuch troops as the Ge- 
neral may appoint. 

Johnfon-hall, Jan. 18, 1776. 

Upon which I told the Indians, that 
I believed the matter would be fettled 
in a peaceable manner. They then re- 
tired with repeated exprelfions of their 
approbation of my conduct, and of 
cfteem for Congrefs. I then fent th< 
following to Sir John, viz.' 



Cagnuage, Jan. 19, I 776 
General Schuyler's feelings as a gentle- 
man, induce him to confent that Sir 
John Johnfon may retain the few fa- 
vourite family arms, he making a lift of 

The General will alfo confent, that 
Sir John Johnfon may go as far to the 
v.eftward as the German, flats, and 
Kingfland diftric'ts in this county, and 
to every other part of this colony, and 
and to the fouthward and eaftward of 
faid diftritts, provided he does not go 
to any feaport town ; the General, how- 
ever believes, that if Sir John's private 
iufinefs Ihould require his going to any 
of the other ancient hn^lilh colonies, 
that he "will be permitted it, by apply- 
ing toCongrefs for leave. 

The General will itake fix of the 
Scotch inhabitants prifoncrt, fince they 
prefer it to poing hoiiages. It has 
been the invariajU rule of the Congrefs, 
and that of all its officers, to treat 
prifoners with the great eft humanity,, 
and to pay all due deference to rank,' 
he cannot afcertain the places to which 
Congrefs may pleafe to fend them ; 
for the prefent they will go to Read- 
ing or Lancafter in Pennsylvania. 
Nor can he make any promiles with 
refpect to the maintainance of the 
women and children. His humani- 
ty will ceitainly induce him to re- 
commend to Congrefs, an attention to 
■what has been requefled on that head. 
General Schuyler expects, that ill the 
Scotch inhabitants of whatfoever rank, 
that are not confined to their beds by 
illnefs, (ball attend with tbeir arms, 
and deliver them on Saturday at twelve 
o'clock, which, if not faithfully per- 
formed, he will confider himfelf difen- 
jaged from engagements entered into 
with them. 

General Schuyler never refufed a 
gentleman his fide arms. 

The prifoners that may v be taken, 
muft be removed to Albany immediate- 
ly where the General will permit them 
to remain a reafonable time to fettle 
their family affairs. 

If the terms General Schuyler has of- 
fered, on the 17th inft. are accepted, 
with ,the above qualifications, fair co- 
pies will be made out and figned by 
the parties, one of which will be deli- 
vered to Sir John M'B nell figned by 
the General. To prevent a wafte of 
time, the General wilhes Sir John and 
Mr. M'Donell immediately to fend an 
,.:nl>ur. He remains, with due re- 
I'peit, Sir John'.s and Mr. M'Donell's 
tumble fervant, ><PH. SCHUYLER. 

Which was agreed to, and on Friday 
the 19th, I marched to Johnftown, 
havin t firft detached parties to different 
parts of the county, to bring in the 
other tories, not comprehended in the 
agreement with Sir John. In the af- 
ternoon, the arms and military ftores in 
the pofTeffion of Sir John, were deliver- 
ed up; a much fmalier quantity than I 
expected. On Saturday the aoth, at 
twelve o'clock, I drew my men in the 
ftreet, and the High landers, between 
two and three hundr.d, marched to the 
front, where they grounded their arms; 
thefe', I difmiflcd them with an 
exhortation, pointing out the only con- 
duct, which could infure them protec- 
tion. 1 then ient for two of the per- 
fons mentioned in Conner's affidavit, 
the reft not being in the county, and 
tried by every means in my power to 
make them confefs what Conner charged 
them with ; they ftrenuoufly denied the 
charge, and when I produced Conner, 
they called him perjured wretch, and 
declared their willingnefs to be hanged, 
if upon farther examination, 1 fhould 
have juft grounds to conclude that his 
charge was fupported , I then fent fe- 
veral field officeis, and a party with 
Conner to the fpot where the arms 
were fuppofed to be hid; he pointed out 
a fiiall artificial oval ifland in a duck 
pond, the greateft diameter of which, 
was about twenty eight feet, and the 
Ihortcr about twenty, and raifed about 
three feet above the furface of the 
wat^r in its higheft part, and Hoping 
down to the pond; on its being ob- 
ferved that it was' too fmall to hide 
fo many arms, he faid they were put 
up in four piles. The ground v. as then 
cleared of the fnow, and broke up; it 
was immediately perceived, that the 
ground had not been lately broken up; 
they however dug down, until they got 
as low as the furface of the water, 
ami, then tried with flicks, fwords, and 
other inftruaients, but found nothing. 
The gentlemen prefent, unanimoufiy 
reported, that they were convinced 
that Conner was an importer. As 
filch I fhall keep him confined, until 
1 receive farther directions from Con- 

On Saturday evening, I returned to 
Cagnuage. Some of the parties, I had 
fent on the preceding day, were return- 
ed with about fifty torieF, fixty more 
wore biought in on Sunday the 21ft. 
1 left Colonel Herkimer, and the com- 
mitff of Tryon county, to receive the 
arms of the remainder, and to fix on 



L T S 

fix of the principal leaders, and fend. 
them to. me. I expeft the whole dis- 
armed, or to be dh&rmed, will amount 
to above fix hundred. Not being fatis- 
fied with the ammunition, *%r. delivered 
me by Sir John, I wrote iurn the fol- 
low i i£ letter. i 

Sir, Cignuage, Jan. 11, 1776* 

" Although it is a well kn:>wn tail, 
t'lat all the. Scotch people, that yefter 'ay 

" s. 

th^iurry and cor>fu!if>ri''which the torn" 
mand of fucp a m '''.-tuJc muft neceiia- 
n!y create. FrKiceu I never had, during 
the whole time, Jels than thirty people 
aoout me, noV wa-, it poflitde to«reti.e 
to any place where the fame inconve- 
niency would not have aUeudcd.- I am, 
•Hi', molt refpetitully, your obedient 
humble fervant, 


furrendevtd arms^Jwd not broad f words, 'To the Hon. John. Hancock, Efq; &c 

when they came to t'u, 
niaity of ihein had, and 

co'jnfry, yet 
ni-il of them 
were potleiiel of ducks, and as none 
have* been given up of either, 1 vi iil 
charitably believe that it was richer 
inattention" than a wilful omiffion. 
\Vlieihcr it wis the former or the lat- 
ter, rmift be afcertained imnK.diai.ely by 
their compliance, or, non-compliance, 
with that part of the treaty, whicli 
requires that all arms of what kind io- 
ever, fhould be deliveted up. 

After having been informed by you, 
at our firit interview, that the Scotch 
people meant to defend themfelves, I 
was not a little furprifed, that no am- 
munition was delivered up, and that 
you had none to furnifn them with. 
Thefe obfervations were immediately 
made by others as wjl as me ; I w« 
too apprehenfive of the consequences, 
which might have been fatal Lo thofe 
people, to take notice of it on the fpot. 
I (hall, however, expeft an eclaircife- 
men: on tills ' fubject, and beg that 
you and Mr. M'Donell will give it me 
as foon as may be. I am gentlemen 
with due refpeft your humble fervant. 

To Sir Johnfon, Baronet. 

And then marched back to thi<; place. 
I have had much anxiety, and an in- 
credible d<-al of trouble, to prevent fo 
large a botty of men, collected on a hid- 
den, with little diliipHiK, from tunning 
into excefles. I a^n however, ; »njpv 
that nothing mated; . h?s happened 
that can n-fleft lilg.ace on our cauie. 

I forgot to ohferve, that previous to 
iry leaving this place, I had fent a 
meflage to the Mohawks, advifing them 
of rny intended march into the county 
of Tryon, and alluring them that no 
^ olence was intended them, copy of 
v inch, with copy of their anfwer I en- 

After 1 had finifhed in Tryon countyV 
3 difpatcl.ed Mr. Deane the interpreter, 
%eith a fpeech and belt to the Six Na- 
tions. Congrefs will perceive that rny 
fpeeehes are very crude and inaccurate ; 
but although at belt incompetent, yet at 
this time, I have another excufe from 

The aboVe account is publilhed by 
order of the Hon. Continental Con- 
greis. V 

M A RIR 1 A G E S. 

At Kingi"Aoo<i,"'\V'efl New Jerity, Mr., 
Robert \Vil">;i, $0 Mils Mary v S<ewart, 
daughter of ChaVles Stewart, Efq; 

s Mr. Ifaac Lev's of the Welih traft, 
to Mi s Haona*v£>l»che of Cox's neck, 
Newcaftle cotiftW 

At Philadelphia, Mr. Jeremiah Wil- 
liam! m, to Mift Lydia Jofiah. 

Capt. Franci> Blotter of the artillery, 
to Mifs Nancy Henderion. 

Feb. 15. Alexander Moore, jun. Etc;; 
of Cumberland New Jerfey, to Mil's 
Sally Tate, daughter of Anthony Tate, 
Eh;; of Bucks county, Ptnniylvania. 

At Sti.itiord in Conneclicut, was 
baptited the ieventh lbn of the rev. 
Mr. Vhetmore, by the name of Richard 
Montgomery, out of grateful r<;fpe<£ to 
the immortal memory of the brave Hero 
of that name. 

Feb. 10. At Hingham, a fori of Mr. 
Norton Brailsford, baptized by the name 
of Charles Lee. 


Deacon Cutler, of the feeond 
pa-ifh of Cambridge, in the 8ld year 
year of his age, leaving behind him 8 
children, 68 grand-children, 115 great 
grand children, and 3 great great grand 

Jan. 3. At his feat in Dutches coun- 
ty, Col. il»nry Beckman, aged 88. 

Jan. 4. At Fort Edward, Chefter coun- 
ty New-- York, Ar.:hi.:ald Campbell, Efq; 
on of the Judges or' the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas for that county 

Feb. 15. At Philadelphia, Mrs. Eli- 
zabeth Cadwalader, wife of John Cad- 
walader, Efq; of this ci:y. 


Jacob Rufll, Efq; appointed/ Sccreta'y 
to the Prefident of the Congi'eis. 

Major Lewis Nicola, appointed Bar- 
rack mafterofthis ci:r- 

The following Col ..s are appointed 
Brigadier Generals: \\ iUhmThonipfon 
Andrew Lewis, and Jarip Moore, Efqr.7 
the Earl of Stiilij." 4fUtctt Howe, Ef</